Energy, Security and Environment in Northeast Asia (ESENA) (1996 — 1999)

The Energy, Security and Environment in Northeast Asia (ESENA) Project, completed in December 1999 (see final report (html format) |(pdf format)), analyzed energy, security, and environmental issues related to large-scale energy use in Northeast Asia. The primary purpose of this analysis was to develop joint U.S.-Japanese policy initiatives directed toward realizing a safe and sustainable energy future in the region. Topics which the ESENA Project investigated included:

  • Transboundary Air Pollution (Acid Rain)
  • Energy-Related Marine Issues
  • Financing Advanced Clean Coal Technology in China

The ESENA Project was a collaborative effort between the Berkeley, California-based Nautilus Institute and the Tokyo-based Center for Global Communications (GLOCOM) at the International University of Japan. Funders for the Project were the U.S.-Japan Foundationand The Japan Foundation’s Center for Global Partnership.

More about ESENA…

Year 3: Financing Advanced Clean Coal in China
China relies more heavily on coal as a source of energy than any other country in the world. However, coal is a cause of major environmental problems in China and the region. Methods need to be devised to mitigate these problems. One method is to introduce advanced clean coal technologies. The ESENA Year 3 project is exploring a Global Environment Facility-based innovative financing mechanism to help finance the introduction of one type of clean coal technology, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). About Year 3…

Year 2: Energy-Related Marine Issues
Northeast Asia is dependent on sea transport for the import and export of fuels, especially oil. The ESENA Year 2 project focused on energy-related marine issues in Northeast Asian regional seas. A series of papers was commissioned for the project. Most papers addressed two broad sets of issues: 1) navigation safety and sea lines of communication (SLOC) issues, and/or 2) environmental protection issues. Most focused on the transport of oil. Of all regional seas, the Sea of Japan/East Sea received special attention. Go to Papers.

Year 1: Acid Rain
The transboundary air pollution issue in Northeast Asia is viewed in the region as one of its most serious international environmental problems. The ESENA Year 1 project commissioned papers which provided a scientific assessment of the acid rain dimension of the problem, and explored various strategies for cooperation. Go to Papers.

See publications below: