Special Reports

Special Reports are longer, often more technical, documents consisting of entire articles, government statements, and other documents relevant to security and peace in Northeast Asia.

NAPSNet, Special Reports

COMMAND AND CONTROL OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN INDIA

M.V. RAMANA & LAUREN J. BORJA AUGUST 1, 2019   I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, M.V. Ramana and Lauren Borja state that Indian nuclear weapons reportedly are “controlled by the Nuclear Command Authority, a two layered structure, one of which is headed by the Prime Minister. Nuclear command and control in India,” they conclude, “has […]

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AN ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ON AVOIDING INADVERTENT NUCLEAR WAR

NANCY LEVESON JULY 25 2019 I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Nancy Leveson argues that using conservative techniques and avoiding software in critical functions in NC3 systems circumvented nuclear catastrophe in the past. Today, she concludes, a new approach is needed that avoids unnecessary complexity; emphasizes less not more technology; and improves NC3 systems by developing […]

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NUCLEAR COMMAND, CONTROL, AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

FIONA S. CUNNINGHAM JULY 18 2019 I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Fiona Cunningham describes the origins of China’s NC3 system and its primary role in supporting China’s land-based missile force.  She outlines recent developments including mobility, “informatization” and automation of parts of the NC3 system, pending deployment of nuclear missile submarines, early warning systems, evolving […]

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RUSSIA’S NC3 AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS

LEONID RYABIKHIN JULY 11 2019   I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Leonid Ryabikhin argues that distrust, misunderstanding and concern prevail in US/NATO and Russia relations “which increases the risk of unintended or accidental conflict. Human or technical mistakes and a variety of natural events can cause the failure or malfunction of technical systems and errors […]

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE US NC3 INDUSTRIAL AND INNOVATION BASE

ELVERT L. GARDNER July 2, 2019   I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Elvert Gardner describes NDU’s inaugural NC3 study course on the readiness of the industrial base to support US NC3 modernization and supply chain risks that may impede DoD’s ability to purchase technology in a timely and affordable manner. Colonel Elvert Gardner is an […]

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ESTIMATES OF REFINED PRODUCT SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THE DPRK, 2010 – 2017

DAVID VON HIPPEL AND PETER HAYES JUNE 30, 2019    I.  INTRODUCTION In this Special Report, David von Hippel and Peter Hayes provide estimates of DPRK supply of and demand for petroleum products in recent years.  Demand (and thus balancing supply) for key oil products in 2017 seems to have been considerably higher than official […]

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TURKEY AND NUCLEAR COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS

CAN KASAPOĞLU JUNE 27, 2019 I. INTRODUCTION In this essay, Can Kasapoğlu  argues that in contrast to the other four NATO “nuclear delivery states (Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Turkey), Turkey no longer appears to have an active nuclear weapons delivery mission using bombers and its NC3 system is likely dormant.  “Yet,” he concludes, “in […]

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CYBER OPERATIONS AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS

 JON R. LINDSAY JUNE 20, 2019   I.   INTRODUCTION In this essay, Jon Lindsay argues that “As NC3 increasingly uses digital technologies to enhance efficiency and reliability, the cybersecurity of NC3 becomes a pressing concern. Adversaries have incentives to penetrate NC3 for intelligence in peacetime and for counterforce in wartime. Given the broad diffusion of cyber […]

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FRANCE: NUCLEAR COMMAND, CONTROL, AND COMMUNICATIONS

BENOÎT PELOPIDAS JUNE 13, 2019   II.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Benoît Pelopidas outlines what is known about French NC3 and identifies discursive, sociological and temporal challenges to assessing the validity of claims on this topic. After reviewing the primacy of presidential nuclear authority, the nuclear chain of command, civilian control over the arsenal, tension […]

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DPRK’S NC3 SYSTEM

MYEONGGUK CHEON JUNE 6, 2019   I.  INTRODUCTION In this essay, Myeongguk Cheon describes what is known about North Korea’s NC3 system.  He concludes: “Regarding the DPRK’s NC3 system, however, many questions remain unanswered, even though it is clearly identified who has the final approval authority and what forces operates delivery systems for the employment […]

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