Resources – Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap

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Recommended Citation

"Resources – Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap", Pine Gap, February 26, 2016, https://nautilus.org/briefing-books/australian-defence-facilities/pine-gap/resources-joint-defence-facility-pine-gap/

NOTE: THIS PAGE IS BEING thoroughly RECONSTRUCTED. PLEASE BEAR WITH US for a little while.

RT, FEBRUARY 2016

SEE ALSO

Starting points

Richard Tanter, ‘Home Base’, Australian Financial Review, 23 January 2015  [PDFs: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3text version].

Pine Gap Investigation I‘, The Radioactive Show, 3CR, 13 February 2016

Philip Dorling, ‘Pine Gap’s new spy role revealed‘, Sydney Morning Herald, 31 May 2015.

Home Base: US military bases in Australia‘, Late Night Live, ABC Radio National, 27 January 2015

Research studies

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson, Richard Tanter and other colleagues have published a series of closely documented research studies on Pine Gap. As of February 2016, the studies published in The Pine Gap Project include the following:

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The Antennas of Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 18 February 2016.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, Managing Operations at Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 24 November 2015.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The SIGINT Satellites of Pine Gap: Conception, Development and in Orbit, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 15 October 2015,

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The Higher Management of Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Report, 18 August 2015.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The militarisation of Pine Gap: Organisations and Personnel, Nautilus Institute, Special Report, 14 August 2015.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The corporatisation of Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 24 June 2015.

Desmond Ball, Duncan Campbell, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, Expanded Communications Satellite Surveillance and Intelligence Activities Utilising Multi-beam Antenna Systems, Nautilus Institute, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 28 May 2015.

The most authoritative source on Pine Gap over many years has been the work of Professor Desmond Ball of the Australian National University.

The best single introduction, though now outdated, to the Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap remains the Report of the Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, October 1999 on An Agreement to extend the period of operation of the Joint Defence Facility at Pine Gap, (pdf) and the testimonies to that committee by Desmond Ball and Paul Dibb.

In need of updating and under reconstruction:

AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT SOURCES

Department of Defence

Founded In History, Forging Ahead, Department of Defence, 8 September 2006.

Defence Department Submission, Inquiry into Australia’s Defence Relations with the United States, Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee, 17 February 2004.

Address to Anzus Conference, Peter Reith, Minister For Defence, 30 June 2001.

National Interest Analysis, Alliance Policy and Management Branch, International Policy Division, Department of Defence, 4 June 1998.

Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America to further extend in force the Agreement relating to the Establishment of a Joint Defence Facility at Pine Gap of 9 December 1966.

Parliamentary committees

Reference: Treaties tabled on 27 August 2002, Joint Standing Committee On Treaties, Official Committee Hansard, 16 September 2002.

An Agreement to extend the period of operation of the Joint Defence Facility at Pine Gap, Report of the Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, October 1999.

Testimony of Professor Desmond Ball to the Joint Standing Committee On Treaties, Reference: Pine Gap, Official Committee Hansard, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 9 August 1999, pp 1-16.

Testimony of Professor Paul Dibb to the Joint Standing Committee On Treaties, Reference: Pine Gap, Official Committee Hansard, 9 August 1999, pp 17-28.

Parliamentary questions and debates

Questions Without Notice: Defence: Use of Facilities, Senate, 18 September, 2002.

Question from Senator Greig to the Minister for Defence, Senator R. Hill.

Questions Without Notice: Take Note Of Answers, Defence: Use of Facilities, Speech by Senator Greig, Senate, 18 September, 2002.

Defence: Pine Gap (Question No. 287), Answers to Questions on Notice, 28 May 2002.

Question from Tanya Plibersek MHR to Daryl Williams, Attorney-General.

Defence: Pine Gap (Question No. 286), Answers to Questions on Notice, 28 May 2002, pp 2555-6.

Question from T.Plibersek MHR to the Minister representing the Minister for Defence.

Question on Notice: Defence: the Pine Gap Facility, (Question No. 1625), 19 September 1994.

Question from Senator D.Margetts to the Minister for Defence, Senator Robert Ray.

Question on Notice: Pine Gap: Joint Facility, (Question No. 27), 21 August 1990.

Question from Senator J. Valentine to the Minister for Defence, Senator R. Ray.

Question on Notice: Joint Defence Facilities: Radomes and Antennae (Question No. 866), 3 May 1989.

Question from senator I.P.Dunn to the Minister Representing the Minister for Defence, Senator G.F.Richardson.

Joint Defence Facilities, R.J.L.Hawke, Prime Minister, Ministerial Statement, House of Representatives, 22 November 1988.

Question on Notice: DSCC Terminals at Joint Defence Space Research Facility, Pine Gap, Northern Territory, (Question No. 3418), 18 November 1981.

Question from A.C. Holding MHR to Minister for Defence, D.J.Killen.

Treaties and international agreements

Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America to further extend in force the Agreement relating to the Establishment of a Joint Defence Facility at Pine Gap of 9 December 1966, as amended, (Canberra, 4 June 1998), Australian Treaty Series 2000 No. 27, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Entry into force: 18 August 2000.

Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America amending the Agreement on the Establishment of a Joint Space Research Facility of 9 December 1966, as amended [Pine Gap] [1988] ATS 36, (Canberra, 16 November 1988), Australian Treaty Series 1988 No 36, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Entry into force: 16 November 1988.

Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America amending the Agreement relating to the Establishment of a Joint Defence Space Research Facility of 9 December 1966 [Pine Gap] (Canberra, 19 October 1977), Australian Treaty Series 1977 No. 24, Department of Foreign Affairs, 19 October 1977.

Agreement between the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of the United States of America relating to the Establishment of a Joint Defence Space Research Facility [Pine Gap, NT], Australian Treaty Series 1966 No 17, Department of External Affairs, Entry into force: 9 December 1966.

US GOVERNMENT SOURCES

United States Government Submission, Inquiry into Australia’s Defence Relations with the United States, Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee.

ANALYSIS

Pine Gap – general

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The SIGINT Satellites of Pine Gap: Conception, Development and in Orbit, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 15 October 2015,

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The Higher Management of Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Report, 18 August 2015.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The militarisation of Pine Gap: Organisations and Personnel, Nautilus Institute, Special Report, 14 August 2015.

Desmond Ball, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, The corporatisation of Pine Gap, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 24 June 2015.

Desmond Ball, Duncan Campbell, Bill Robinson and Richard Tanter, Expanded Communications Satellite Surveillance and Intelligence Activities Utilising Multi-beam Antenna Systems, Nautilus Institute, Nautilus Institute, Special Reports, 28 May 2015.

Richard Tanter, ‘Possibilities and effects of a nuclear missile attack on Pine Gap‘, Australian Defence Facilities, Nautilus Institute, 30 October 2013

Richard Tanter, The “Joint Facilities” revisited – Desmond Ball, democratic debate on security, and the human interest, Special Report, Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability, 12 December 2012 (abridged earlier version appeared as American bases in Australia revisited, in Brendan Taylor, Nicholas Farrelly and Sheryn Lee (eds.) Insurgent Intellectual: Essays in honour of Professor Desmond Ball, (ISEAS, 2012).

Desmond Ball, ‘The US-Australian Alliance: the Strategic Essence‘, Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2001.

Jeffrey T. Richelson, ‘Desperately Seeking Signals‘, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March-April 2000.

Duncan Campbell, Interception Capabilities 2000, Report to the Director General for Research of the European Parliament, (Scientific and Technical Options Assessment programme office) on the development of surveillance technology and risk of abuse of economic information, April 1999.

Jeffrey T. Richelson, America’s Space Sentinels: DSP Satellites and National Security, University of Kansas Press, 2nd edition, 2012.

Jeffrey T. Richelson, The US Intelligence Community, Westview, seventh edition, 2015.

Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealand’s Role in the International Spy Network, Craig Potton Publishing, 1996.

Desmond Ball, Pine Gap: Australia and the US geostationary signals intelligence satellite program, Allen and Unwin, 1988.

Desmond Ball, A Base for Debate: The US Satellite Station at Nurrungar, Allen and Unwin, 1987.

Jeffrey T. Richelson and Desmond Ball, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries – the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, Harper, 1985

Desmond Ball, A Suitable Piece of Real Estate: American Installations in Australia, Hale & Iremonger, 1980.

Satellites and Pine Gap

Code Names for U.S. Military Projects and Operations, Andreas Gehrs-Pahl, 2003-05.

Titan 4 rocket launches cargo cloaked in secrecy, Justin Ray, Spaceflight Now, 9 September 2003.

USA-171: New “ear” in orbit [USA 171: ????? «???» ?? ??????, ???????? ????????????], V. Agapov, Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 250, September 2003.

USA 171, NSSDC Master Catalog Display: Spacecraft, NASA.

USA-171, Real Time Satellite Tracking.

Advanced Orion Chronology, Encyclopedia Astronautica.

Chalet 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 / Vortex 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Gunter Krebs, Gunter’s Space Page.

Mentor 1, 2, 3 (‘Advanced Orion 1, 2, 3’), Gunter Krebs, Gunter’s Space Page.

Mercury 1, 2, 3 (‘Advanced Vortex 1, 2, 3’), Gunter Krebs, Gunter’s Space Page.

Space Based Infrared System, GlobalSecurity.org.

Systems

Electronic Warfare, United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 3-13.1, 25 January 2007.

Joint Communications System, United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 6-0, 20 March 2006.

Architectures for a Space-Based Information Network with Shared On-Orbit Processing, Serena Chan, PhD dissertation, MIT, February 2005.

The Impact of the Information Revolution on Policymakers’ Use of Intelligence Analysis, Lorne Teitelbaum, RAND, 2005.

Review of Operational Level Interoperability Between the Military Forces of Australia and the United States of America, Commander, United States Pacific Command and Chief of the Defence Force, Department of Defence, Australia, October 2004.

Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Intelligence Support to Targeting, United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 2-01.1, 9 January 2003.

Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 2-0, 9 March 2000.

Signals Intelligence, United States Marine Corps, MCWP 2-15.2, 22 February 1999.

United States, Army, Army Space Reference Text, US Army Space Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, July 1993.

Core Intelligence Programs and Systems, GlobalSecurity.org.

Defense Support Program, GlobalSecurity.org.

Integrated Overhead SIGINT Architecture [IOSA], GlobalSecurity.org.

Intelligence Dissemination, Programs and Systems, GlobalSecurity.org.

Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System [JWICS], GlobalSecurity.org.

Military Intelligence Satellites, GlobalSecurity.org.

Military Space Programs, GlobalSecurity.org.

National Signal Databases, GlobalSecurity.org.

Signals Intelligence, Military Space Programs, GlobalSecurity.org.

Space Based Infrared System, GlobalSecurity.org

TENCAP [SIGINT and IMINT] [Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities], GlobalSecurity.org.

IRAQ, AFGHANISTAN AND PINE GAP

a. Desert Storm and SIGINT

Operation Desert Storm: Ten Years After, Jeffrey T. Richelson (ed.), A National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book, 17 January 2001.

Desperately Seeking Signals, Jeffrey T. Richelson, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March-April 2000.

Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm Assessment, United States Space Command, January 1992.

Desert Storm “Hot Wash”, United States Air Force Space Command, 12-13 July 1991.

Operation Desert Storm: the Military Intelligence Story – a view from the G-2, 3rd Army, Brigadier-General John F. Stewart, United States Army, April 1991.

The Intelligence War in the Gulf, Desmond Ball, Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence, No 78, 1991.

Signals Intelligence, Desert Star – Military Space Intelligence, Federation of American Scientists, 7 April 1997.

b. Iraq and Afghanistan and SIGINT, 2001-present

Pine Gap and the coalition wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, Richard Tanter, Alice Springs, 13 June 2007.

Australia hosts new US spy facility, Dan Nolan, Al Jazeera, 11 May 2007.

Networks in the Coalition Environment, Paul T. Mitchell, Adelphi Papers, 46:385, 53 – 70, 2007.

Winning in Afghanistan: How to Face the Rising Threat, Anthony H. Cordesman, CSIS Report, Revised: December 12, 2006.

The Intelligence Lessons of the Iraq War(s), Anthony Cordesman, CSIS Report, Second Rough Working Draft: August 6, 2004.

Pine Gap has played a part in first strike says professor, Verona Burgess, Canberra Times, 22 March 2003.

Aussie spy station could be US eye on Iraq, Times of India, 21 March 2003.

The Air War Lessons of Afghanistan: Change and Continuity, Anthony H. Cordesman, CSIS Report, December 27, 2002.

Project coordinator: Richard Tanter
Updated: 26 February 2016


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