Extended Nuclear Deterrence

A Korea-Japan Nuclear Weapon Free Zone has implications for the US assurance of extended nuclear deterrence to Japan and Korea. At the very least a nuclear weapon free zone would require the United States to commit to not firing nuclear weapons out of the NWFZ. A nuclear weapon free zone in North-East Asia could shift the focus of US deterrence away from nuclear weapons and towards the reliance on the conventional forces already deployed in the region.

Publications l  Supporting Materials

Country-Specific Supporting Materials:


Rethinking Extended Deterrence in Northeast Asia
Jeffrey Lewis, Director of the Nuclear Strategy and Nonproliferation Initiative at the New America Foundation, Nautilus Policy Forum, November 3, 2010.

Beyond the Nuclear Umbrella: Re-Thinking the Theory and Practice of Nuclear Extended Deterrence in East Asia and the Pacific
Peter Hayes, Professor, RMIT University and Executive Director of the Nautilus Institute, and Richard Tanter, Nautilus Institute Senior Associate, Nautilus Special Report, May 3, 2011.

Changing Dynamics of U.S. Extended Nuclear Deterrence on the Korean Peninsula
Cheon Seongwhun, Nautilus Special Report, November 10, 2010

Did Deterrence Against North Korea Fail in 2010?
Ken Jimbo, Asia Foundation Centre for US-Korea Policy, Vol. 3 No. 7, July 2011

Should the US Put Nuclear Weapons Back in Korea?
Jeffrey Lewis, Director of the Nuclear Strategy and Nonproliferation Initiative at the New America Foundation, Nautilus Special Report, January 13 2011, originally published by 38 North.

Extended Nuclear Deterrence: Global Abolition and Korea
Peter Hayes, Executive Director of the Nautilus Institute, Nautilus Special Report, December 17, 2009.

North Korean Nuclear Nationalism and the Threat of Nuclear War in Korea
Peter Hayes, Professor, RMIT University and Nautilus Institute Executive Director, and Scott Bruce, Nautilus Institute Director

Supporting Online Material: North Korean Nuclear Statements (2002-2010)
[Summary: These sources are meant to show the change in DPRK statements on its nuclear program between October 2002 and the present. Statements from the Korean Worker’s Party (KWP), Korean People’s Army (KPA), and DPRK Cabinet are labeled as such so that the distinctions between the views of these different institutions in the DPRK can be observed.

Supporting Materials


Nuclear Compellence: The Political Use of the Bomb. Merrill, John and Peleg, Ilan, Crossroads: international dynamics & social change. Jerusalem.  Vol. 11.1984, p. 19-39.

Extended Nuclear Deterrence in Northeast Asia
Lewis, J., East Asia Nuclear Security Workshop, Tokyo, Japan (November 2011)

Reducing Military Tension; Building an Atmosphere of Peace
Abe, N., East Asia Nuclear Security Workshop, Tokyo, Japan (November 2011)

Conventional Force Issues and a Korean-Japan NWFZ
Tanter, R., and Hayes, P.,Draft Research Note for Nov. 11, 2011 East Asia Nuclear Security Workshop, 23 June 2011

Reality Checking: Nuclear Deterrence
Evans, Gareth, Prepared remarks for Is a Nuclear-free East Asia Possible? Opportunities and Constraints, 6th Jeju Forum Panel, May 28, 2011

Precision Technologies as Possible Alternatives to Nuclear Weapons
Lukasik, S., July 19, 2010

The Case for No First Use
Scott D. Sagan, Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 1468-2699, Volume 51, Issue 3, 2009, pp. 163 – 182

Good and Bad Nuclear Weapons: Berlin’s Part in Shaping Nuclear Reality
Michael Rühle, Körber Foundation for International Affairs, Körber Policy Paper No. 3, April 2009

NATO and Extended Deterrence in a Multinuclear World
Michael Rühle, Comparative Strategy, 28:10-16 (2009)

Are the Requirements for Extended Deterrence Changing? Panel discussion at the 2009 Carnegie International Nonproliferation Conference: The Nuclear Order—Build or Break, 6 April 2009. [Audio] [Transcript]

Extended deterrence on the way to a nuclear-free world
George Perkovich, Research Paper, International Commission on Nuclear. Non-proliferation and Disarmament, May 2009

Nuclear Operations, Air Force Doctrine Document 2-12
U.S. Air Force, 7 May 2009.
[Excerpt: The US employs extended deterrence on a daily basis to project deterrent effects in key regions across the globe. These forward-deployed assets combined with the global reach of continental United States (CONUS)-based nuclear forces provide theater-level assurance to allies abroad and deterrence to adversaries.]

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?
John S. Foster, Jr. and Keith B. Payne, Forum on Physics and Society of The American Physical Society, Vol. 36, No. 4, October 2007

The Uses and Limitations of Nuclear Deterrence in Asia
Charles Wolf, Jr., The RAND Corporation, August 1964
Report released to the Nautilus Institute under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).