NAPSNET Week in Review 8 December, 2000

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"NAPSNET Week in Review 8 December, 2000", NAPSNet Weekly Report, December 08, 2000, https://nautilus.org/napsnet/napsnet-weekly/napsnet-week-in-review-8-december-2000/

Korean Peninsula


1. Korean Unification

US Ambassador to the ROK Steven W. Bosworth said Wednesday that despite improvements in relations between the Koreas this year, reunification is not a realistic short-term goal. He said that instead, the two Koreas should continue to work on reconciliation.
“Prospects for Korean Reunification” (Daily Report, December 6, US)


2. Inter-Korean Relations

The ROK Defense Ministry said that the ROK and the DPRK on Tuesday neared an agreement on the establishment of a military hot line to help prevent accidental clashes within the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) during the restoration of the inter-Korean railway and road links.
“ROK-DPRK Military Talks” (Daily Report, December 6, ROK)
“Inter-Korean Railway” (Daily Report, December 5, US)
“Inter-Korean Military Talks” (Daily Report, December 4, ROK)

ROK officials said Monday that with various rapprochement projects between the two Koreas already behind schedule, next week’s inter-Korean ministerial talks will likely focus on an overall readjustment of schedules for these programs.
“Inter-Korean Projects” (Daily Report, December 5, ROK)

Three-day reunions with of separated family members ended Saturday. The DPRK government insisted that the total value of any gifts given by ROK citizens to their DPRK relatives be limited to US$500.
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, December 4, US)

The wives and mothers of ROK fishermen believed to have been abducted by the DPRK decades ago held a protest Friday to demand their return in.
“ROK Detainees in DPRK” (Daily Report, December 8, US)

DPRK Ambassador to the UN Li Hyong-chol on Friday met with more than 250 ROK students and press at Columbia University. Li said that no foreign troops on Korean territory can be justified, and that in a united Korea, “we will calculate how to remove” the US troops. He said that the ROK and the DPRK have more common ground than they do differences.
“ROK-DPRK Exchanges” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


3. Light-Water Reactor Project

The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) could ask Hitachi Limited and Toshiba Corporation to provide generators for light-water reactors to be built in the DPRK if General Electric Company decides to withdraw from the project. Nucleonics Week reported that nuclear engineering executives warned that a decision by General Electric (GE) not to supply the turbine generator would require a redesign of the entire balance of plant (BOP) at a cost of perhaps several hundred million US dollars.
“KEDO Project” (Daily Report, December 7, US)
“Light-Water Reactor Project” (Daily Report, December 8, US)

The Japanese government decided on December 2 to ask the European Union (EU) to significantly increase their financial contribution to the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO).
“Light-Water Reactor Project” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


4. Four-Party Peace Talks

ROK officials said that, immediately after ROK President Kim Dae-Jung secured support from US President Bill Clinton and PRC Prime Minister Zhu Rongji in Singapore last month, the ROK proposed to the DPRK that they resume four-party talks on a peace treaty to replace the Armistice Agreement.
“Four-Party Peace Talks” (Daily Report, December 8, US)


5. US Military Presence

Talks between the ROK and the US to revise the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) governing US troops in the ROK will likely end with little substantial progress. The article said that the US is refusing the ROK’s proposal on the establishment of an environmental clause in SOFA as it would be legally binding and wants ROK authorities guarantee the rights of accused US soldiers to question witnesses or their accusers face-to-face.
“US-ROK SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, December 7, ROK)
“US-ROK SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, December 6, ROK)
“ROK-US SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, December 5, ROK)
“US-ROK SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, December 4, ROK)

The ROK Defense Ministry said in its Defense White Paper 2000 that the size of a US deployment to the Korean Peninsula in the case of war rose from 480,000 troops in the early 1990s to 690,000 in 2000, and would also include 160 vessels and 1,600 aircraft. The White Paper also said that the DPRK deploys more than 55 percent of its key forces near the frontline. It added that the DPRK’s official military budget for next year is US$1.36 billion, or 14.5 percent of the total budget, but that actual military spending accounts for 30 percent of the budget.
“US Reinforcement Force” (Daily Report, December 5, ROK)
“DPRK Military Posture” (Daily Report, December 5, ROK)
“DPRK Military Posture” (Daily Report, December 4, US)
“US Contingency Plans for Korea” (Daily Report, December 4, US)

Hundreds of ROK citizens held a protest rally calling for an overhaul of the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) governing the legal rights of US troops in the ROK. Participants also demanded a thorough investigation into the Nogun-ri incident. The protest rally was organized by the People’s Action for Reform of the Unjust ROK-U.S. SOFA Agreement.
“Anti-US Protest” (Daily Report, December 7, ROK)

A year-long US Defense Department investigation concluded that US soldiers panicked and fired into a crowd of unarmed refugees near the village of No Gun Ri in the early days of the Korean War, but did not find conclusive evidence that the troops had orders to shoot civilians. ROK and US investigators met at the War Memorial in Seoul to discuss the investigation. Kim Byoung-ho, chief policy coordinator at the ROK prime minister’s office, said Thursday that the ROK wants the US to apologize and give compensation to relatives and survivors of Nogunri. Brigadier General Cha Yong-gu of the ROK Defense Ministry stated, “The Korean team depends more on the claims of victims. The Americans depend on the documents and testimony of veterans. The source is different.” He added, “Basically, the United States and Korea are trying hard to share each other’s view. It’s not an easy problem. The more important thing is our alliance.” An anonymous ROK government official said Tuesday that the US opposes including such words as “massacre” or “holocaust” in a joint statement on the Nogun-ri incident. Kim Byong-ho, chief policy coordinator at the ROK prime minister’s office, said Thursday that US and ROK investigators moved closer to resolving disagreements over this issue.
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 6, US)
“Nogunri Incident” (Daily Report, December 7, ROK)
“Nogunri Incident” (Daily Report, December 7, US)
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 6, ROK)
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 5, ROK)
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 4, ROK)
“Nogunri Incident” (Daily Report, December 8, US)


6. DPRK-US Relations

Yang Sung-chul, the ROK’s new ambassador to the US, on Monday said that the ROK government would go along with whatever decision US President Bill Clinton makes on a proposed trip to the DPRK. An unnamed US administration official said on Friday that US President Bill Clinton was actively considering a visit to the DPRK before leaving office in January. The official stated, “He will base his decision on advancing our interests in national security, not on an arbitrary timeline.” US officials said that they believe they have made enough progress on a deal to halt the DPRK’s missile program to complete the agreement during a presidential visit, but that the opportunity could slip away if left to the next administration. The DPRK is reportedly asking for financial compensation for lost missile exports and a commitment from the US to have as many as three civilian satellites launched each year without charge.
“Clinton’s Trip to DPRK” (Daily Report, December 5, US)
“Clinton Visit to DPRK” (Daily Report, December 8, US)

An anonymous US Defense Department official said that the DPRK has agreed to hold talks with the US starting December 13 on terms and conditions for resuming the search for remains of US servicemen killed during the Korean War.
“Remains of US Soldiers from Korean War” (Daily Report, December 7, US)


7. DPRK-Russian Relations

Leonid Moiseyev, Director of the Russian 1st Asia Department, said that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il’s visit to the RF “most probably” would take place in the first half of 2001.
“DPRK Leader’s Visit to RF” (Daily Report, December 6, RF)


8. DPRK Power Grid

The global technology company ABB issued a press release that said that it had signed a “wide-ranging, long-term” cooperation agreement with the DPRK aimed at improving the performance of the DPRK’s electricity transmission network and basic industries. ABB said that it will review joint investment opportunities with partner enterprises in the DPRK electrical products and services sector.
“DPRK Power Grid” (Daily Report, December 6, US)

The Los Angeles Times reported that the Nautilus Institute is putting up wind turbines and windmills in the DPRK to demonstrate the viability of alternative energy sources so that the DPRK will feel less need to build nuclear power plants that could be used to develop nuclear weapons.
“Nautilus DPRK Windpower Project” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


9. DPRK Loan Repayment

Thai Deputy Minister of Commerce Goanpot Asvinvichit said that Thailand and the DPRK will discuss the repayment of a Thai loan to the DPRK government in the first quarter of next year. The DPRK owes Thailand US$96.15 million for rice sold on credit in 1993. The DPRK ambassador said that his government was not legally able to issue bonds to pay the debt.
“DPRK Loan Repayment” (Daily Report, December 7, US)


10. DPRK Medical Situation

Tomas Liew, head of the DPRK program for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, said Friday that doctors in the DPRK are under-prescribing medicine because of fears that donations will run out.
“DPRK Medical Situation” (Daily Report, December 8, US)


11. DPRK Food Situation

David Morton, the UN resident coordinator in the DPRK, said on Thursday that the DPRK is suffering its worst food shortages since 1996-97. Morton said that if the ROK, Japan, the US and other nations provide 810,000 tons of food, relief agencies should able to feed the DPRK’s people through the winter and into next year’s growing season.
“DPRK Food Shortage” (Daily Report, December 7, US)

A high-ranking official from the DPRK food policy authority revealed to visiting Japanese former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama that food production decreased this year by 1 million tons from the previous year. The Murayama delegation also told reporters that the DPRK still needs 2,200,000 tons of food and that the DPRK official expressed gratitude for the 500,000 tons of rice aid from the Japanese government.
“DPRK Food Situation” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


China


1. Cross-Straits Relations

Recent trips to the PRC by officials of Taiwan’s Kuomintang (KMT) party shows how the KMT and PRC are brought together in opposition to Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian and the Democratic Progressive Party. Xu Shiquan, head of the PRC’s Institute of Taiwan Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, stated, “The contacts between the KMT and the mainland will play a stabilizing role” in cross-strait relations by putting “pressure on the DPP to accept or move closer to the one-China principle.”
“Cross-Straits Relations” (Daily Report, December 7, US)

Four Taiwan business leaders met with Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian and urged him to lift a ban on direct trade and transport links with the PRC.
“Cross-Straits Economic Relations” (Daily Report, December 5, US)

The PRC strongly criticized an advisory committee of Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian for “playing with words” in its suggestions about Chen’s “one china” policy cross-Straits talks.
“Taiwan Question” (Daily Report, December 5, PRC)


2. US-Taiwan Relations

According to a source involved in the process, the US Department of Defense is evaluating whether it should reintroduce formal military attaches to Taiwan. Taiwan’s Ministry of National Defense announced on 9 November that the two countries will strengthen military cooperation after the new US administration assumes office.
“US-Taiwan Relations” (Daily Report, December 6, US)

Taiwan’s defense ministry on Monday refused comment on a report in Jane’s Defense Weekly last week that it was considering acquiring Kidd-class guided missile destroyers from the US.
“US Weapons Sales to Taiwan” (Daily Report, December 4, US)

Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian said that the US should stop opposing Taiwan’s membership in international organizations and argued that the US should also remove restrictions on Taiwanese officials visiting the US.
“US-Taiwan Relations” (Daily Report, December 6, US)


3. Taiwan Military

Researchers at Taiwan’s Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology said that they have successfully developed a Hsiungfeng-3 supersonic anti-ship missile. The researchers said that the missile outperforms the Russian-made Sunburn missile that the PRC purchased earlier this year.
“Taiwanese Military Development” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


4. PRC Military Trade

Pakistan is expected to sign a contract with the PRC to purchase 60 F-7 MG intercept fighters, three squadrons worth, to be used as a second line of defense. Pakistan had been expected to order only 40 planes, but increased the order to phase out aging F-16s.

“PRC Military MaterielRussian officials said that Russia will lend the PRC two airborne radar surveillance aircraft for three years and then sell them up to four advanced A-50E airborne warning and control systems (AWACS).
“PRC Military Purchases from Russia” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


5. PRC Missile Technology Controls

Sonika Gupta, a research officer at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies in New Delhi, argues that the recent agreement by the PRC to better control missile technology exports is the result of US engagement oriented towards bringing the PRC into the political mainstream. Gupta also states that the deal may signal a weakening of the PRC-Pakistan defense relationship, but that India should focus the India-PRC relationship upon their border problems and military-to-military confidence building measures.
“PRC Missile Technology Controls


6. PRC-US Relations

The fourth defense consultations, co-chaired by Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the PLA Xiong Guangkai and under-secretary of the US Department of Defense Walter B. Slocombe, concluded this week. The PRC and the US have agreed that consultations between defense officials have enhanced mutual trust and understanding, and will help reduce differences, expand consensus and promote relations between the two armed forces.
“PRC-US Relations” (Daily Report, December 5, PRC)

US Vice Admiral James Metzger said Friday that the US Navy’s Seventh Fleet is a “911 force” ready to respond to trouble, though its role is primarily to promote cooperation and deter trouble. Metzger also stressed that the US is not seeking to contain the PRC, and that he did not expect tensions between the PRC and Taiwan to deteriorate into open conflict
“US Navy in Asia-Pacific” (Daily Report, December 8, US)

PRC Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan laid a wreath Sunday at the ruins of the PRC Embassy in Belgrade. Tang stated, “Everybody asking why we keep saying that the talk in the West about human rights is false, that it is full of double standards, should see this and they will understand. It was an example of the policy of force. We shall never forget this.”
“US-PRC Relations” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


7. PRC-Japanese Relations

World Economics and Politics published an article by Feng Shaokui on PRC-Japanese relations. Feng noted that the PRC-Japanese relationship is one of the most sophisticated among PRC foreign relations, but also the hardest and most controversial one in PRC foreign policy studies.
“PRC-Japanese Relations” (Daily Report, December 5, PRC)


8. PRC Membership in WTO

Kenneth Lieberthal, former special assistant on Asia to US President Bill Clinton, said that domestic tensions in the PRC will rise sharply as the country enters the World Trade Organization (WTO).
“US-PRC Relations” (Daily Report, December 4, US)


9. Tibet Issue

The Dalai Lama of Tibet presently in exile abroad declared resumption of his contacts with the PRC Government that were severed in early 1990s.
“Tibet Issue” (Daily Report, December 6, RF)


Japan


1. Japan-US Alliance

The International Herald Tribune carried an opinion article by June Teufel Dreyer, Bruce A. Elleman and Robyn Lim in which they said that, despite shared interests among Russia and the PRC in opposing US global dominance, much potential for antagonism remains. They argued, “The notion of strategic partnership between Russia and China is unrealistic. In Asia, the sole real strategic partnership among the great powers is the U.S.-Japanese alliance.”
“US-Japan Alliance” (Daily Report, December 5, US)

Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono stated that he will seek the advice of former Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto, entering the new Cabinet as a state minister in charge of Okinawa and northern territory affairs, in the planned return of the US Marine’s Futenma Air Station in Okinawa.
“Japanese-US Base Issue” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


2. Compensation for Wartime Incidents

The Kajima Corporation agreed to establish a fund with 500 million yen (US$4.6 million) to compensate wartime laborers at its Hanaoka copper mine and their survivors. The agreement settled a court case brought on behalf of nearly 1,000 Chinese forced to work in Japan in World War II.
“Japanese Slave Labor Compensation” (Daily Report, December 4, US)

The Tokyo High Court rejected a US$9 million compensation demand from Filipino women forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese army during World War II. The judge cited an international law saying individuals are not allowed to sue a government for human right abuses, and said that the statute of limitations also expired.
“Comfort Women Compensation” (Daily Report, December 6, US)

A five-day mock trial opened Friday accusing the Japanese government of war crimes for forcing thousands of women into sexual slavery to serve Japanese women during World War II. The trial lists the late Emperor Hirohito as one of the defendants, and is being held next to Yasukuni Shrine, a monument to Japan’s war dead.
“Mock Japanese War Crimes Trial” (Daily Report, December 8, US)


3. Japan-DPRK Normalization

A delegation from the DPRK Association of External Culture Liaison and a Japanese delegation led by former Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama met on December 1 in Pyongyang to consult over DPRK-Japan relations. The DPRK criticized Japan for refusing to acknowledge history. Murayama and his delegation also met with DPRK Supreme People’s Committee Chair Kim Yong-nam on December 4.
“DPRK-Japanese Relations” (Daily Report, December 5, PRC)
“Former Prime Minister’s Visit To DPRK” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)

Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono told reporters that talks with the DPRK over normalizing diplomatic relations are “not deadlocked,” but are awaiting preparations by both sides.
“Japanese-DPRK Normalization Talks” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


4. Japan-Russian Peace Treaty

Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono reiterated Japan’s stance that a bilateral peace treaty with Russia must be signed after resolving the territorial row over all of the four disputed islands off Hokkaido–not just the two islands that Moscow promised to return to Japan under a 1956 joint declaration.
“Japanese-Russian Relations” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


5. Japanese ODA Program

Japan’s ruling coalition’s project team on foreign aid has compiled a draft policy paper urging a “quantitative cut” in official development assistance (ODA). The policy paper urges the government to put priority on using the ODA money for humanitarian purposes, calls for aid- recipient nations to inform the local populace that the ODA goods and services have originated from Japan, and recommends the government pay greater attention to helping the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
“Japanese Foreign Aid” (Daily Report, December 7, US)


6. Japanese Politics

The Yomiuri Shimbun reported that seventy-five percent of respondents to an ad hoc telephone poll said they have no expectations of Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori, while 51 percent said that they hoped the Mori Cabinet would step down soon.
“Japanese Cabinet” (Daily Report, December 8, Japan)


Russia


1. RF View of Korean Reunification

Nezavisimaya gazeta published an article by Andrey Fyodorov, Director of Political Programs at the RF Council on Foreign and Defense Policies, who stated that the expected Korean reunification would be a more complex process than the German one and stressed its economic implications for Russia.
“RF View of Korean Reunification” (Daily Report, December 6, RF)


2. US Missile Defense Program

General Vladimir Yakovlev, head of Russia’s strategic rocket forces, said that Russia would not implement the nuclear reductions called for under START II if the US went ahead with national missile defense (NMD) development. He warned that deploying NMD would galvanize Russia to create “new weapons” to counter it.
“Russian View of US Missile Defense” (Daily Report, December 5, US)

Russian Defense Minister Marshal Igor Sergeyev made an official visit to Japan and had talks with Kadzuo Torashima, Chief of the National Defense Agency of Japan, on the problem of Japan’s work on development of Theater Missile Defense (TMD). Sergeyev also discussed stability on the Korean peninsula, Russian military reform, and regional security fora, but dwelled on TMD.
“RF Defense Minister in Japan” (Daily Report, December 6, RF)


3. Russia-India Military Trade

The Times of India quoted a Moscow radio report that stated that Russia will deliver 40 Su-30Mk1 fighter jets to India by 2004. The planes are already being tested and are in serial production.
“Russian Military Materiel


South Asia


1. Ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir

The ceasefire offered by the Indian government began in Kashmir last Tuesday, and the Times of India reported that 16 people were killed and 25 injured in terrorist attacks in Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian Army in Kashmir has suspended all combat operations in Jammu and Kashmir and has been restricted to passive and reactive actions, except in infiltration attempts and self-defense. Indian and Pakistani government officials made statements oriented domestically and abroad on the ceasefire and the likelihood of talks bilaterally between India and Pakistan or trilaterally, including also Kashmiri groups. Media reports indicated that, while the ceasefire is a cause for hope, both Pakistan and India need to move further towards each other substantially before talks can occur.
“Overview on Indian Ceasefire
“Pakistan Response to Ceasefire
“Jammu and Kashmir Group Responses
“India-Pakistan Dialogue

There were also statements by Jammu and Kashmir groups, including militant groups.
“Other Responses to Ceasefire
“Commentary on Ceasefire


2. Pakistani F-16 Account

Upon requesting that the US return US$140 million transferred to the US to pay for F-16 fighter jets, Pakistan found that US$60 million had been deducted to pay for 400,000 tons of wheat provided by the US in 1999 under an aid program. Pakistani foreign office officials had considered the wheat as “aid” and not as a “purchase,” but conceded this point after talks with US officials.
“US Fighter Plane Refund” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #46)

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