NAPSNET Week in Review 1 December, 2000

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Korean Peninsula


1. Peace & Unification Talks

A senior ROK official said on November 26 that the ROK is expected to propose shortly that the DPRK join the ROK, the US, and the PRC to resume the four-party peace talks, in which the parties will discuss ways to replace the Korean Armistice Agreement with a peace treaty. US Ambassador to South Korea Stephen Bosworth and Katori Yoshinori, deputy chief of mission at the Japanese Embassy in Seoul made statements supporting four-way talks on Korean peace and reiterated the need for their continuation.
“Four-Party Peace Talks” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)
“Four-way Peace Talks” (Daily Report, November 29, ROK)

Dominique Girard, head of a European Union delegation to the DPRK, stated that conversations with dialogue partners indicated that the DPRK believes there is no turning back from its rapprochement with the ROK. ROK President Kim Dae-jung stated that during recent talks together, DPRK leader Kim Jong-il proposed a “loose form of federation” as the formula for unification, and therefore common ground has been found on which the two sides can start negotiating eventual unification.
“ROK-DPRK Relations” (Daily Report, November 28, US)

Dmitri Rogozin, chairman of the Russian State Duma’s foreign affairs committee said after a visit to Seoul that the unification issue should be resolved directly between the ROK and the DPRK. He said, “The emergence of a powerful unified Korea will serve Russia’s national interests.”
“Russia’s View on Korean Peninsula” (Daily Report, November 30, ROK)


2. Light-Water Reactor Project

The DPRK on November 26 denounced the US for a delay in building two nuclear power plants in the DPRK, saying that it will require a “corresponding measure” in compensation.
“Light-Water Reactor Project” (Daily Report, November 27, US)
“Light-Water Reactor Project” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)


3. UN Diplomacy

Diplomatic sources said on November 23 that United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan will visit the DPRK for the first time next January and is expected to meet with DPRK leader Kim Jong-il.
“Kofi Annan’s DPRK Visit” (Daily Report, November 27, US)

DPRK and the United Nations Environment Program have agreed to jointly conduct an evaluation of the DPRK’s environment, possibly next year.
“DPRK-UN Environmental Evaluation” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)


4. US Congressman’s DPRK Visit

US Representative Tony Hall, spoke at a news conference in Seoul and quoted DPRK Vice Foreign Minister Kim Gye-gwan as saying, “he (Clinton) will be pleased with the result if President Clinton comes to North Korea.” Hall’s visit to the DPRK included Pyongyang and rural villages. Hall said that food and power shortages remain as dire as ever in parts of the DPRK outside Pyongyang. Dilawar Ali Khan, UNICEF representative to the DPRK, said that Catherine Bertini, head of the World Food Programme (WFP), will launch an inter-agency appeal for aid to the DPRK and that the appeal would be larger than the 600,000 tons of grain delivered in 1999.
“Hall’s Visit to DPRK” (Daily Report, November 30, ROK)
“DPRK Famine” (Daily Report, November 29, US)
“US Congressman’s DPRK Visit” (Daily Report, November 27, US)
“US Congressman’s DPRK Visit” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)


5. ROK-DPRK Relations

ROK and DPRK officials agreed to continue discussions on military cooperation for the planned reconnection of a severed inter- Korean rail link and the construction of an adjacent four-lane road. They also discussed the establishment of administrative sections in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) through which the inter-Korean railway and road will pass, touching on the safety of people and materials to be mobilized within the DMZ for the cross-border ventures.
“Inter-Korean Talks” (Daily Report, November 29, ROK)
“ROK-DPRK Military Talks” (Daily Report, November 28, US)

The second reunion of separated Korean families took place Thursday in Seoul and Pyongyang. A Korean Air plane carrying the 100 ROK visitors landed outside Pyongyang and then returned to Seoul with an equal number of DPRK Nationals for similar reunions.
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, December 1, ROK)
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, November 30, US)
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, November 29, ROK)
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, November 28, US)
“Reunion of Separated Families” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)

ROK officials said that the DPRK made a counterproposal Saturday to hold another round of inter-Korean ministerial talks in Pyongyang December 12-15, two weeks later than originally scheduled.
“Inter-Korean Ministerial Talks” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)

Senior DPRK diplomat Hong Won-jun, acting DPRK ambassador, along with other foreign envoys attended the official arrival ceremony for President Kim Dae-jung thrown by Singaporean President S.R. Nathan. It was the first time that a DPRK diplomat attended a welcoming ceremony for an ROK President on a state visit to a foreign country.
“Rapprochement in Inter-Korean Relations” (Daily Report, November 27, ROK)


6. ROK Military

The ROK Defense Ministry is considering introducing about US$500 million worth of Russian defense equipment, including transport planes, refueling aircraft, decontamination helicopters, trainers for cadets and hovercrafts, as repayment of part of the ROK’s US$1.8-billion loan to Russia.
“ROK Military Purchases from Russia” (Daily Report, November 28, ROK)


7. US Forces Korea

A US official said that the US cannot embrace the ROK’s proposal to include regulations on environmental protection in the SOFA (Status of Forces Agreement). The US and ROK are to conduct expert talks on other issues relating to the SOFA. A Korea Herald editorial argued that it would be a desirable approach for the US negotiators of the SOFA to make a better effort to understand that the ROK people believe that the SOFA agreement should reflect changes in the US-ROK relationship. ROK Representative Chung Jey-moon from the Grand National Party (GNP) on November 27 called for a further reduction in ROK financial contributions to the overall cost of maintaining US troops in the ROK.
“ROK-US SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, November 30, ROK)
“US-ROK SOFA Talks” (Daily Report, November 28, US)
“US Troops in ROK” (Daily Report, November 28, ROK)

Yi Manh-yol, an adviser to the ROK inquiry, said that US and ROK officials disagree about whether US troops were ordered to open fire on refugees at the No Gun Ri in the early days of the Korean War. An ROK government official said that the ROK is poised to propose that US President Bill Clinton, during bilateral negotiations next week, make an apology for the alleged massacre
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 1, US)
“Korean War Massacre” (Daily Report, December 1, ROK)


8. US Diplomacy on DPRK

Daron Shaw, a senior campaign manager for US presidential candidate George W. Bush, stated in Seoul that a Bush administration would not pursue isolationism in dealing with the DPRK and other “rogue” states and would favor strengthened US military readiness and capability to meet challenges in the new global security order.
“US Policy towards DPRK” (Daily Report, November 29, ROK)

US Ambassador to the ROK Stephen Bosworth said Tuesday that no matter who wins the US election, the US will maintain its basic policy of engagement towards the DPRK. Some analysts have said a Republican administration would get tough on the DPRK in a potential policy discord with ROK efforts to build political and economic engagement with the DPRK.
“ROK-DPRK Military Talks” (Daily Report, November 28, US)


China


1. Missile Technology Control Commitment

On November 21, PRC Foreign Ministry spokesperson Sun Yuxi stated that the PRC would tighten its export controls on missile-related technology and equipment. Sun Yuxi denied US allegations that the PRC has provided controlled missile technology in the past to countries such as Iran and Pakistan. The US stated its support for tighter PRC export controls and decided to waive sanctions for violations of the Missile Control Technology Regime (MCTR) in order to encourage PRC nonproliferation efforts. PRC missile sales were becoming less lucrative than the potential earnings from launching US satellites. Pakistan Foreign Ministry spokesman Mohammed Riaz stated that a promise by the PRC to not provide missile technology to Pakistan would not hurt Pakistan’s missile program.

“PRC Missile Technology Control Commitment” (Daily Report, November 28, PRC)
“PRC-US Missile-related Disputes” (Daily Report, November 28, PRC)
“US Attitude to PRC Missile Commitment” (Daily Report, November 28, PRC)
“US-PRC Missile Deal” (Daily Report, November 27, US)
“Pakistani Nuclear Program” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

Pakistan Foreign Ministry spokesman Mohammed Riaz stated that a promise by the PRC to not provide missile technology to Pakistan would not hurt Pakistan’s missile program. Riaz stated that Pakistan already developed the minimum nuclear force needed for deterrence. US acting Assistant Secretary of State Richard Boucher stated the new sanctions would have little practical effect. An editorial in The Dawn argued that the MCTR should itself be reviewed for allowing such contradictory and arbitrary actions such as the US decision to impose sanctions on Pakistan and Iran, but not on the PRC.
“Pakistani Nuclear Program” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)
“US Sanctions Under MCTR” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)
“Editorial Comments on US Sanctions” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

The Times of India reported that the PRC’s commitment to strengthen its missile-related export control system could be a major step in stopping missile-technology proliferation and slowing an India-Pakistan arms race, but suggested that the US was “soft on China.”
“US Sanctions Waiver for the PRC” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


2. PRC-US Relations

Walter Slocombe, the US undersecretary of defense for policy, told the PRC on Thursday that it is wrong for the PRC to view the US as its biggest potential enemy, referring to statements in the recent PRC defense White Paper. He said, “There’s no question the United states and China have real differences about issues and some of those are quite important differences. There’s a difference between that and regarding each other as potential enemies.”
“US-PRC Relations” (Daily Report, November 30, US)

Two days of talks between US Undersecretary of Defense Walter Slocombe and a number of PRC generals resulted in an agreement to conduct more exchanges between their militaries. Slocombe said that both sides mapped out plans, subject to final approval, for more high-level visits between their militaries next year, the PRC’s participation in international defense forums, and possible discussions on the military’s role in disaster relief. Slocombe was to have discussed the US strategy in the Asia-Pacific, US overall PRC policy, and present US views on a range of current security issues affecting US-PRC bilateral relations.
“US-PRC Military Exchanges” (Daily Report, November 30, US)
“US-PRC Military Talks” (Daily Report, November 29, US)


3. Cross-Strait Relations

Zhang Mingqing, spokesman of the PRC’s Taiwan Affairs Office, said that Taiwan is seeking to avoid the larger issue of establishing full-blown direct links in the “three fields”–transportation, commerce and postal links. However, Taiwan’s transportation and communications ministry said earlier this month it would begin to accept applications for direct shipping between Kinmen and Matsu and the PRC by December.
“Cross-Straits Exchanges” (Daily Report, November 30, US)

The PRC reacted to a Taiwan advisory panel’s recommendation that Taiwan’s constitution could allow President Chen Shui-bian to meet the PRC’s demand that Taiwan president Chen Shui-bian commit to unification and endorse an eight-year-old agreement that facilitated earlier talks. Chen had also suggested that their may be a role for the US outside of mediation. The PRC flatly rejected as “word games” a Taiwan bid to set the stage for reconciliation talks and told Taiwan not to be optimistic about cross-Strait relations. Former US Vice President Danforth Quayle visited Taiwan.
“Taiwan “One-China” Policy” (Daily Report, November 30, US)
“Cross-Straits Relations” (Daily Report, November 29, US)
“Cross-Straits Relations” (Daily Report, November 28, US)

Analysts in Taiwan said the 25-member body’s consensus on a fresh but ambiguous formulation of the “one China” issue was merely an attempt to allow Chen to fudge the issue and meet the PRC’s demand without alienating pro-independence supporters. Taiwan leaders said on Friday that they were disappointed at the PRC’s outright rejection of the island’s latest bid to restart reconciliation talks and urged the PRC to be more conciliatory.
“Cross-Straits Relations” (Daily Report, December 1, US)


4. One-China Principle

Joseph Wu, the deputy director of National Chengchi University’s think tank, the Institute of International Relations, said that Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian’s advisers on November 26 failed to reach a consensus on how to respond to the PRC’s demand that the island embrace the “one-China” principle, an observer said. Taiwanese newspapers said that top Taiwan business leaders have urged Chen to accept the PRC interpretation of the “one China” policy.
“One-China Principle” (Daily Report, November 27, US)


5. PRC-Taiwan Exchange Visits

Qian Qichen, a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), met in Beijing with visiting Vice-Chairman Wu Poh-hsiung of the Taiwanese Kuomintang (KMT) Party, urging Taiwan to stick to the one-China principle. Wu also met with Daohan, President of the Beijing-based Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS). Wu stated that the PRC is always expressing an overblown concern that Taiwan will declare independence.
“KMT Leader’s Visit to Mainland” (Daily Report, November 28, PRC)
“PRC-Taiwan Talks” (Daily Report, November 27, US)


6. PRC-Southeast Asia Relations

PRC Premier Zhu Rongji said while meeting Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong that PRC impending entry into the World Trade Organization will provide more opportunities for cooperation between the PRC and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Zhu said that the PRC attaches great importance to developing links with ASEAN.
“PRC-ASEAN Relations” (Daily Report, November 28, PRC)

PRC Premier Zhu Rongji, in a speech to leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), said that the PRC was “positive” about progress towards a code of conduct in the South China Sea, but made no mention of the Spratlys.
“Spratly Islands Code of Conduct” (Daily Report, November 27, US)


South Asia


1. India-PRC Relations

Defense Minister George Fernandes stated that the progress made by the PRC in many areas of development represents a barrier to India becoming a world power. Fernandes also said that the PRC was India’s greatest rival.
“India-PRC Relations” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

Indian External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh announced that there was forward movement in India-PRC ties because the two countries exchanged maps this month of the 545 km middle section of the Line of Actual Control. An essay in Outlook India by Janaki Bahadur Kremmer reviews several issues in the border dispute, including unrelated pressures that are driving India to engage the PRC.
“India-PRC Border Dispute” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


2. India Ceasefire Offer

The Times of India reported that most Indian parliamentarians supported the ceasefire. The Shiv Sena party expressed opposition to the announced ceasefire but after talks said it would not continue its opposition to the ceasefire. Indian Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee said that, despite threats of violence by militants, the ceasefire offer would not be withdrawn.
“India Ceasefire Offer” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

The Harkat-ul Mujahideen, Harkatul Mujahideen, Jaish-e-Mohammad, and Al-Badr groups declared their intention to increase attacks during the ceasefire. The Hindu stated that pan-Islamic groups were less likely to observe the ceasefire. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front and other Kashmiri groups, including the Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party, called upon militants to honor the ceasefire. The All-Parties Hurriyat Conference shifted its stance on the ceasefire from cautiously neutral to positively supportive, but reiterated its insistence that the Kashmir issue was not an internal Indian issue and its solution must involve Pakistan.
“Militant Group Responses to Ceasefire Offer” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

Editorials in South Asian newspapers indicated that despite the ceasefire offer there were still steps to be taken by India and Pakistan before the other would be convinced they would talk in good faith. The Times of India reported that during a phone conversation between the Directors-General of Military Operations of India and Pakistan, the two countries agreed to stop efforts to change the Line of Control. A joint paper by the Institute of Regional Studies of Pakistan and the Indian International Center for Peace Initiatives proposed a five-stage approach to restoring bilateral negotiations between Pakistan and India.
“Other Responses to Ceasefire Offer” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)
“India-Pakistan Dialogue” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


3. Afghanistan

India and Russia called for an end to support by external parties for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and continued to provide support and arms to the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance of Commander Ahmad Shah Massod. The Times of India reported that a multinational counteroffensive with the support of the US, Russia, Iran, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan would be launched soon against the Taliban.
“Taliban Opposition” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


Japan


1. Japan-DPRK Normalization Talks

A senior Japanese Foreign Ministry stated that the next round of talks between Japan and the DPRK to normalize diplomatic ties may take place in January. According to a high-ranking Foreign Ministry official, uncertainties over negotiations between Washington and Pyongyang on the DPRK missile development and the US president’s visit to Pyongyang, coupled with an expected reshuffle of Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori’s Cabinet in December, have created a difficult environment for the Japanese government to push for the talks.
“Japan-DPRK Talks” (Daily Report, November 29, US)
“Japanese-DPRK Normalization Talks” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)

Former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama is leading a delegation in the DPRK and will meet with DPRK Workers’ Party Secretary Kim Yong-sun and Foreign Minister Paik Nam-sun to convey the delegation’s objective to the DPRK side that Japan establish diplomatic relations with the DPRK by 2002 at the latest.
“Former Prime Minister’s Visit to DPRK” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)

The DPRK said on Friday that it had refused a Japanese proposal to normalize relations based on an economic plan similar to that used years before to normalize relations with the ROK. An editorial in the DPRK’s state-run Rodong Shinmun newspaper the DRPK has the right to demand that Japan pay damages caused by its colonial rule, but Japan has made progress on the issue of the alleged abduction and have made the issue a prerequisite for normalizing relations.
“DPRK-Japan Normalization Talks” (Daily Report, December 1, US)

ROK lawmakers said that Japan must apologize for its 35 years of colonial rule of Korea and make appropriate compensations before it normalizes ties with the DPRK.
“ROK View of DPRK-Japan Normalization” (Daily Report, November 29, ROK)


2. Japan-Russia Territorial Dispute

Alexander Losyukov, Russian Vice Foreign Minister for the Asia-Pacific, said, “Russia wants to close territorial talks with Japan by returning two of the four disputed islands northeast of Hokkaido in line with a 1956 joint declaration.” He suggested that Russia cannot accept Japan’s policy of seeking the return of all the islands, even in a two-step process, and instead seeks an end to the territorial dispute by returning two islands.
“Japanese-Russian Territorial Issue” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)


3. Self-Defense Agency

Former Foreign Minister Yukihiko Ikeda, former Japanese Defense Agency (JDA) Director Generals Fukushiro Nukaga and Shigenari Norota, and other Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) members decided to establish a group within the Lower House aiming to raise the status of the JDA from agency to ministry.
“Defense Agency Reform” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)


4. Japanese Defense Cooperation

The Daily Yomiuri reported that a former high-ranking officer of the US Pacific forces criticized Japan’s stance toward international contributions during a meeting to study security issues. The former US officer criticized Japan’s stance on exercising the right of collective self-defense and said that Japan’s restrictions on its operations constituted burdens on other participating countries.
“Japanese Collective Self-Defense” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)


Nuclear Weapons


1. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Pakistan Foreign Minister Abdul Sattar stated that Pakistan is “not in a hurry” to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Pakistan claims to be abiding by the treaty, but is waiting for a beneficial time to sign it. Indian External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh stated that India will not block enforcement of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, but views nuclear testing as an “inherent right.” Singh also reiterated statements that CTBT enforcement will not be possible with the existence of nuclear weapons all over the world.
“Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


2. Pakistani Nuclear Policy

Chairman of the Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission, Ashfaq Ahmed, said that Pakistan should sell nuclear technology “which was not sensitive and used in agriculture, health and other sectors” in order to help the national economy.
“Pakistani Nuclear Export Policy” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


3. India Nuclear Policy

An essay by Indian Air Force Wing Commander N.K. Pant argues that the three schools on nuclear policy in India approach the issue too academically and that the decision requires a national consensus. An editorial in the Times of India argued that while all democratic states should have an anti-nuclear peace movement, the people of India are largely indifferent to both national and international security issues.
“India Nuclear Policy” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


Missile Defense


1. India Perspectives on UN NMD

An essay by Ritu Mathur, published by the Institute for Defense and Security Analysis in India, argues that the PRC believes that Theater Missile Defense (TMD) can seriously undermine the PRC’s nuclear deterrent and cause the historical enmity between Japan and the PRC to resurface.
“India-PRC Relations” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)

A Times of India editorial points out the irony that the US will subordinate the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty to develop its National Missile Defense- which the US claims it needs because of the weakness of international regimes, such as the Missile Control Technology Regime, for protecting the US.
“Editorial Comments on US Sanctions” (SANDNet Weekly Update, V.1 #45)


2. World Peace Conference

The World Conference on Religion and Peace (WCRP) held on November 30 in Kyoto urged world leaders not to develop missile defense systems of the type being considered by US.
“World Peace Conference” (Daily Report, December 1, Japan)

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