Northeast Nuclear Free Zone

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NAPSNet Special Report

Recommended Citation

"Northeast Nuclear Free Zone", NAPSNet Special Reports, November 28, 1997,

November 28, 1997

The following is a report of the meeting of the Expanded Senior 
Panel of the Limited Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone for Northeast 
Asia, held in Moscow October 1-3, 1997.  The meeting was 
sponsored by the Center for International Strategy, Technology, 
and Policy of the Ivan Allen College of Georgia Tech University.  
The report consists of three parts:  a brief summary of the 
meeting, the memorandum produced, and a list of the participants.




Summary Report


From 29 September to 3 October 1997, the Center for International 
Strategy, Technology, and Policy of the Ivan Allen College 
sponsored a meeting in Moscow, Russia, with the cooperation of 
the Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the Russian Academy of 
Sciences of the Expanded Senior Panel (ESP) of the Limited 
Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone for Northeast Asia (LNWFZ-NEA).  The 
Moscow conference consisted of senior retired diplomats, retired 
generals and admirals, technical specialists, and academics from 
China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and 
the United States.  As part of the Center's Northeast Asia 
Regional Cooperative Security Initiative, the conference 
participants recommended in "The Moscow Memorandum" several steps 
to create a limited nuclear weapons-free zone in the region:

The creation of a League of Non-nuclear Northeast Asian States 
consisting initially of Japan, the Republic of Korea, and 
Mongolia.  The Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (North 
Korea) would be invited to join at any time and without 
conditions.  This would constitute Phase I of the new Limited 
Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone for Northeast Asia.

The identification of one nuclear military base or facility in 
each of the nuclear weapon possessing states (China, Russia, and 
the United States) to be part of a non-contiguous Phase II pilot 
project of the LNWFZ. In this sense, each state would designate 
one military base were nuclear weapons are present to have some 
percentage of these weapons included in the system of regional 
control.  Both non-nuclear weapons states and nuclear weapon 
states would thus be involved in commitments to the regional 
zone.  Phase III would involve the expansion of these single 
points into a larger zone involving all states of the region.

In addition to the above, the Moscow Memorandum recommended 
continued research into issues concerning the weapon types to be 
included, the nature of the inspection system and degree of IAEA 
involvement, the agency structure to oversee the zone, and the 
supplementary legal obligations of all states within the zone.

The unofficial representatives from the above states agreed to 
meet at least once in Atlanta during the coming year, prior to 
the holding of the next plenary session of the ESP, to prepare 
for greater coordination of international efforts toward non-
proliferation and arms control.

Specific confidence-building measures to contribute to the 
realization of a cooperative security community in NEA were also 
identified for further working group efforts.  These included: 

Methods to configure nuclear weapons within the zone to prohibit 
rapid launch 

Techniques to ensure accountability of nuclear warheads in the 

Studies to review impact of possible theater missile defense 
systems in the area

Conventional CBMs, an the possible creation of an AsiaAtom to 
parallel EurAtom

The entire plenary session agreed to meet in Japan or Hawaii to 
review progress in the Fall of 1998.  Representatives from Korea 
and China agreed to host meetings in 1999 and the year 2000 



Interim Secretariat for the Limited Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone for 
Northeast Asia

The Moscow Memorandum of  the Expanded Senior Panel of the 
Northeast Asia Limited Nuclear Weapons Free Zone

Moscow, Russia October 1997

Recognizing that the diligence and energy to insure peace and 
develop new cooperative patterns of international behavior in 
Northeast Asia are more demanding than the processes of policy by 
historic inertia, the individual members of the Expanded Senior 
Panel (ESP) agree to continue the process toward a complete 
examination of the limited nuclear weapons-free zone concept for 
Northeast Asia. The Members of the Expanded Panel resolve to work 
during 1997 and 1998 toward achieving the following goals:

I.      Establish representative ESP working groups to develop 
operating protocols for:

A.      Creation of a Phase I Limited Nuclear Weapons Free Zone 
based on a Northeast Asian League of Non-Nuclear States, 
specifically Japan, the ROK, possibly Mongolia, and if its non-
nuclear status is clarified, the DPRK;

B.      Consideration of a non-contiguous LNWFZ-NEA 
configuration, i.e., a pilot project to include 
removal/destruction and/or relocation of nuclear weapons from a 
few bases, or even one base, in each in/near the region which has 
nuclear weapons.  This configuration could be expanded on a time-
phased approach;

C.      A combination of both (A and B);

D.      Designation of specific weapon types, groups, or 
categories to be included as covered nuclear weapons for Phase 

E.      Integration of an inspection system into the Zone to 
cover the categories of weapons to be included for potential 
Phases II and III;

F.      A verification system, perhaps in conjunction with the 
International Atomic Energy Agency, and contact with appropriate 
United Nations Agencies;

G.      Agency structure/infrastructure, including personnel 
strengths and qualifications, funding support levels, and 
preferred location of regional headquarters;

H.      Elaborating further on the LNWFZ-NEA with regard to both 
interests of countries involved and system of legal obligations 
under their international agreements.

 II.     Increase utilization of the Track II Secretariat (the 
Coordinating Institution at the Center for International 
Strategy, Technology, and Policy, Georgia Institute of 
Technology) to institutionalize and facilitate contact between 
National Teams during non-conference periods. Within this 
organization, continue and deepen sponsored studies on the above 
issues and insure the dissemination and coordination of views to 
all members of the Expanded Senior Panel, through all available 
means including:

A.      Meeting at the Track II Secretariat or other designated 
area for at least one mid-year coordinating session between one 
representative of each of the various National Teams to prepare 
draft progress statements and seek greater international 
recognition of the LNWFZ-NEA concept and the idea of Cooperative 
Regional Security in Northeast Asia;

B.      Increasing the scope of issues reviewed by the Expanded 
Senior Panel to include appropriate confidence building measures 
(CBMs) for a Cooperative Regional Security system in NEA, 
including such issues as:

1.      Methods to configure nuclear weapons within the zone in 
ways that will not permit rapid launch;

2.      Techniques to ensure accountability of nuclear warheads 
other than those deployed with operational delivery vehicles;

3.      The impact of the possible deployment of theater missile 
defense (TMD) systems;

4.      Developments related to other CBMs including measures of 
transparency and restraint, no-first-use pledges, including other 
weapons of mass destruction, and appropriate conventional force 

5.      Creation of a regional nuclear safeguards organization, 
AsiaAtom, along the lines of EurAtom.

 III.    Welcome the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, as a 
full and equal partner, to join the effort;

 IV.     Ensure involvement of official government 
representatives into the entire process;

 V.      Meet to review progress toward the above objectives in 
the Fall of 1998 in Japan or Hawaii, and tentatively agree to 
designate Korea and China as meeting sites for 1999 and the year 

 _____________________________________________ LNWFZ National 
Team, the Peoples' Republic of China

_________________________ LNWFZ National Team, Japan

______________________________________ LNWFZ  National Team, the 
Republic of Korea

______________________________________ LNWFZ National Team, the 
Russian Federation

_________________________________ LNWFZ National Team, the United 

 ____________________________________ John E. Endicott Chairman 
of the Interim Secretariat LNWFZ-NEA



Northeast Asia Regional Cooperative Security Initiative

Moscow Conference of the Expanded Senior Panel on the Limited 
Nuclear Weapons Free Zone for Northeast Asia


The Chinese Delegation:

Professor Yan Xuetong, Team Leader and Coordinator, Deputy 
Director of the China Institute of Contemporary International 

Professor Huang Ming, Arms Control Group, Beijing Institute of 
Systematic Engineering

Mr. Liu Huaqiu, Senior Fellow, China Defense Science & Technology 
Information Center

Colonel (ret) Xia Liping, Shanghai Institute for International 

The Russian Delegation:

Professor Anatoly V. Bolyatko, Gen-Major (ret); Team Leader; 
former Deputy Chief of the Treaty and Law Directorate of General 
Staff of the USSR; Principal Research Fellow, Institute of Far 
Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences

Professor Victor N. Pavlyatenko, Moscow coordinator; Head of 
Center for Japanese Studies, Institute of Far Easter Studies, 
Russian Academy of Sciences; expert on security problems

Dr. Vasilii I. Krivokhizha, professor, Deputy Director of the 
Russia Institute for Strategic Studies; nuclear weapons expert

The Honorable Andrei M. Efimov, Chief Advisor, Coordination for 
Asian Department for Security and Disarmament Affairs; Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs  (Official Observer)

Major General Pavel Semyenovich Zolotaryev, Head of Center for 
Analysis and Information; Ministry of Defense (Official Observer)

The Japanese Delegation:

The Honorable Tatsufumi Tsuboi, former Director General of the 
Cabinet Security Affairs         Office; former President of the 
National Institute for Defense Studies; currently, Executive    
Managing Director, Mutual Aid Association Defense Agency

Major General (ret) Tadao Inoue, former Commandant of the 
Chemical School, Ground Self Defense Force; former Representative 
of Japan to Geneva Disarmament Conference; currently, Technical 
Advisor, Fuji Electric Co. Ltd.

Mr. Saburo Koshizaka, Senior General Manager, Space Systems 
Business, Radio Operation Unit, Computer & communication Product 
Technologies, NEC Corporation

Professor Mitsuru Kurosawa, Osaka School of International Public 
Policy and Faculty of Law

Lt. General (ret) Katsuhiko Sho, former Head, Logistic Planning 
Division, Air Staff Office; former Commander, Western Air Defense 
Force; currently, General Advisor, Electronic Products & Systems 
Group, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

The South Korean Delegation:

Dr. Choi Sang-Jin, Team Leader and Coordinator, Brig.General 
(ret) ROKA and former Ambassador, Korean Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs; currently, Senior Research Fellow, Sejong Institute

Major General (ret) Lee Suk Bok, formerly Commanding General 5th 
Division, Senior Negotiator, DMZ Commission

Dr. Shin Sung-Tack, Colonel, ROK Army; Research Fellow, Korea 
Institute for Defense Analysis (Official Observer)

Brig General Ryoo Jin Kyu, Ph.D, Deputy Director, Army Control 
Office, Ministry of National Defense (Official Observer)

Major General Kim Jung Whan, retired Air Defense Artillery 
Officer, former Military Attaché to USA; former Special Assistant 
to Director, Defense Intelligence Agency

Mr. Shin Kook Ho, Senior Negotiator for Security Affairs, 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs   (Official Observer)

The United States Delegation:

The Honorable William Clark, Team Leader, former Assistant 
Secretary of State for East Asia and Ambassador to India; 
currently, President, The Japan Society

The Honorable James Goodby, former arms control negotiator; 
currently, Guest Scholar, Brookings Institution

Major General (ret) Richard A. Freytag, former President and CEO, 
Citicorp Banking Corporation

Admiral William Pendley (USN, ret), former Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of Defense; currently, Professor,  Air War College

Mr. Selig Harrison, Arms Control Expert and Senior Research 
Fellow, Carnegie Foundation for International Peace

Lt. General (ret) Richard Lawrence, Security Consultant, Sunergeo 

Dr. Daniel Papp, Interim President, Southern Polytechnic 
University, expert on Russia and the former Soviet Union

Dr. John E. Endicott, former Director, National Institute for 
Strategic Studies; former Associate Dean, National War College; 
currently, Director, Center for International Strategy, 
Technology and Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology

Col. Robert Rudesill (USA, Ret.) Senior Adjunct Fellow, CISTP, 
former Inspector General, U.S. Military Academy, Faculty Advisor, 
NATO Defense College

Guest Delegates:

From Argentina: The Honorable Oscar Fernandez, President, Nuclear 
Affairs Committee, Argentine Council for International Relations

From France: Mr. Michel Dusclaud, Ingeniuer d'Eudes, National 
Center for Scientific Research


End of Report

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