NAPSNet Daily Report 11 August, 1999

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"NAPSNet Daily Report 11 August, 1999", NAPSNet Daily Report, August 11, 1999,


I. United States

II. Republic of Korea

III. People’s Republic of China

I. United States

1. DPRK Missile Test

US Defense Department Spokesman Kenneth Bacon (“PENTAGON REGULAR BRIEFING,” Washington, USIA Text, 08/10/99) said that the US does not anticipate that the DPRK will launch a missile within the next few days or even within the next few weeks at this stage. Bacon stated, “We’re monitoring this very, very closely. North Korea itself has talked about the possibility of a missile launch so we have to take the possibility of a missile launch seriously. And yes, an observation ship has left Hawaii on its way to the North Pacific so we will be in a position to monitor a launch should one occur. We are also working very hard in conversations with North Korea to convince them that a missile launch would be a negative step, that it would have a negative impact on relations with us, on relations with Japan, and also clearly relations with South Korea. Those talks are ongoing. North Korea will end up making its own decision, obviously, and it will have to live with the consequences of that decision.”

The Associated Press (Sang-Hun Choe, “S. KOREAN: N. KOREA MISSILE READY,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that the head of the ROK’s National Intelligence Service, Chun Yong-taek, said that the DPRK has finished building an upgraded ballistic missile and is weighing the pros and cons of a test launch. Chun said that it would take at least three or four weeks for the DPRK to transport the missile and assemble it for launching at a base on the northeast coast. Chun said that the new Taepodong II missile would have a range of up to 4,163 miles. Chun stated, “North Korea appears to be weighing possible economic and political losses and gains before deciding whether to go ahead with the missile launch.” Chun said that the DPRK conducted rocket-engine propulsion tests on May 5 and May 21 in an apparent attempt to build a more powerful rocket to propel its new missile. He added that the DPRK has enlarged its missile launch platform and renovated its fuel pipeline to the platform.

2. DPRK-US Meeting

US State Department spokesman James Rubin (“STATE DEPARTMENT NOON BRIEFING,” Washington, USIA Text, 08/10/99) said that US Ambassador Charles Kartman and his DPRK counterpart, Vice Foreign Minister Kim Gye-guan met on Monday night after the close of the four party talks. Rubin said, “This was the third such bilateral meeting on the margins of the Four Party Talks. Ambassador Kartman had a good exchange with Vice Foreign Minister Kim. We use these meetings to continue our discussions on the many issues we discuss with North Korea. We continue to use such encounters to stress to North Korea the advantages of taking steps to improve its relations with the United States and the international community based on the ideas discussed by former Secretary Perry in his trip to North Korea. When and if we are ready to talk about progress on the missile issue, we will do so. For now I have said that what we did in these meetings was stress the benefits to North Korea of a regime in which they foreswear further testing and we improve our relationships, as opposed to a situation where a further test occurs with the consequences we have previously described.”

3. DPRK Fighter Assembly

The Associated Press (“N.KOREA SAID ASSEMBLING MIG-21 JETS,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that, according to ROK Defense Minister Cho Sung-tae, the DPRK is assembling 40 MiG-21 fighter jets with parts bought from a former Soviet republic. Cho said that the assembly work was well under way, and 34 of the MiG jets were already taking shape. The ROK Defense Ministry refused to provide further details.

4. DPRK’s View of Japanese Flag and Anthem

The Associated Press (“N. KOREA DENOUNCES JAPAN OVER FLAG,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that the DPRK accused Japan on Wednesday of reviving militarism by giving official status to the flag and the national anthem. The DPRK’s official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) called the move “an intolerable insult to the peoples of the countries which were subjected to aggression by Japan in the past.” KCNA said that the flag and the anthem were “the standard and song of the Japanese imperialists’ aggression army that drenched Korea and other Asian countries with blood.”

5. Japan-US Theater Missile Defense

US Defense Department Spokesman Kenneth Bacon (“PENTAGON REGULAR BRIEFING,” Washington, USIA Text, 08/10/99) said that Japan and the US have begun collaboration on research into a ballistic missile defense system. Bacon stated, “We anticipate that we’ll sign a memorandum of understanding sometime this month with Japan outlining the procedures for collaborative research.”

6. PRC Policy toward Taiwan

South China Morning Post (Jason Blatt, “TAIPEI ‘TO FACE BEIJING FORCE’,” Taipei, 08/11/99, 1) reported that the PRC leadership has decided to use an appropriate degree of force against Taiwan, possibly including the occupation of an outlying island, should Taiwan authorities refuse to abandon Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui’s “two states theory.” According to an unnamed source in Beijing, top units, including the PRC party’s Central Military Commission and the Leading Group on Taiwan, have been empowered to decide on the timing as well as severity of the military action to be taken. The source said that this was the preliminary decision of the series of leadership meetings at the Beidaihe resort. The source said that the options the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was considering included the invasion and temporary occupation of an outlying island held by Taiwan. The source stated, “Hardliners at Beidaihe urged that action be taken soon after the October 1 National Day. Moderate elements argued that Beijing should wait until the presidential elections in Taipei next March. They said military action should be taken if the new president did not give up Lee’s ‘splittist’ stance.” Another source close to the Beidaihe meetings said the leadership also put a lot of store by the US’s tacit pledge to pressure Lee to put the brakes on its “pro-independence gambit.” The source said that the PRC might be willing to shelve its military action if there were signs Taiwan had succumbed to US pressure to effectively dispel Lee’s “two states theory”. [Ed. note: This article was one of the top stories in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

7. Hong Kong-Taiwan Relations

The Associated Press (“HONG KONG DENIES EX-TAIWAN OFFICIAL,” Taipei, 08/11/99) reported that Taiwan officials said that Taiwan’s former top official for PRC affairs Chang King-yuh has been denied entry into Hong Kong. Chang was denied a visa to attend an academic conference at the University of Hong Kong, where he was scheduled to deliver an address Thursday on the topic of reunification between Taiwan and the PRC. Chang, a policy adviser to Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui, helped draft policy toward the PRC as head of the Cabinet’s Mainland Affairs Council until last year. Fredrick Fung, general education coordinator for the University of Hong Kong, said that immigration officials gave no reasons for the rejection of the visa request. Fung stated, “It’s an academic exchange, but officials may find the topic, which is on China-Taiwan relations, too sensitive at this time.”

8. Taiwan-PRC Diplomatic Rivalry

The Associated Press (Royden Alvarado, “TAIWAN WINS BACKING FOR UN BID,” San Jose, Costa Rica) reported that foreign ministers of six Central American countries said that they support Taiwan’s efforts to rejoin the UN and other agencies that expelled Taiwan in favor of the PRC. Costa Rican Foreign Minister Roberto Rojas said, “The countries of Central America believe that Taiwan deserves to be included in the United Nations and other international organizations. We recognize Taiwan as a democratic country which has shown broad development in economy and other areas.” Rojas urged Taiwan and the PRC to resolve their conflicts through dialogue. Taiwan announced US$21 million in aid to the region, as a meeting of the Central American foreign ministers and Jason Hu of Taiwan came to a close on Tuesday.

9. US Policy toward Taiwan

The Wall Street Journal (Russell Flannery and Eduardo Lachica, “TAIWAN SUPPORT RISES IN THE U.S. CONGRESS,” 08/11/99) reported that some of US Congressional members are pressuring the President Bill Clinton administration not to side more closely with the PRC. Alcee L. Hastings, a US House Democrat from Florida, said, “There is no question” that support for Taiwan has been strengthening. He added, however, that support must be “delicately balanced because of the accidental bombing of the [PRC] embassy in Kosovo and the strained relations that we have now with the Chinese.” Benjamin Gilman, the chairman of the US House of Representatives International Relations Committee, said, “As a democracy, any change in Taiwan’s status should come only with the consent of the people of Taiwan. President Lee [Teng-hui] should not feel pressured to negotiate [on reunification] until China is a democracy.”

10. India-Pakistan Air Battle

The Associated Press (Ramola Talwar Badam, “PAKISTAN FIRES ON INDIA CHOPPERS,” Bhuj, India, 08/11/99) reported that Pakistan fired a missile at Indian aircraft flying near the crash site of a Pakistani surveillance plane on Wednesday, the second aerial clash in the disputed border region in two days. Pakistani military spokesman Brigadier Rashid Quereshi said that his forces fired on two Indian fighter jets escorting three helicopters with journalists to the crash site. Quereshi said, “Two Mig 21 fighters … approached the site of the wreckage. Our troops who were there engaged them and fired one time.” Quereshi said that Pakistan forces detected Indian naval movements near their waters. He said that Indian soldiers had violated Pakistan’s territory and “stole some small parts of the aircraft” to back Indian claims that the plane fell in its territory. India said its air force had retrieved part of the wreckage from Indian territory near the Pakistani border.

The New York Times (“INDIA-PAKISTAN-HELICOPTERS,” New Delhi, 08/11/99) and Reuters (Zahid Hussain, “PAKISTAN SAYS IT FIRED ON INDIAN INTRUSION,” Badin, Pakistan, 08/11/99) reported that Pakistan said that it fired on Indian jet fighters attempting to intrude on its air space Wednesday and placed surface-to-air missiles at the site where its maritime patrol plane was shot down Tuesday by India. However, Star News Television reported that Pakistan fired a missile at an Indian helicopter carrying journalists to the crash site. Pakistan denied the report, but India’s Defense Ministry said Pakistan fired at two of its MI-17 helicopters carrying the journalists. An Indian Defense Ministry spokesman said, “The firing came from across the international border when the helicopters were well within Indian territory. There were no damages.”

11. Pakistan Army

The Associated Press (“PAKISTAN ARMY PUT ON ALERT,” Islamabad, 08/11/99) reported that Pakistan put its army on alert Wednesday and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif held an emergency meeting with his Cabinet to decide how to react to India’s downing of an unarmed Pakistani navy plane with 16 servicemen aboard. A government official said that Pakistan’s top military and civilian leaders are expected to meet later Wednesday to review any Cabinet decisions.

12. Kashmir Conflict

The Associated Press (Ramola Talwar Badam, “PAKISTAN FIRES ON INDIA CHOPPERS,” Bhuj, India, 08/11/99) reported that India on Wednesday said that its troops killed five Pakistani soldiers as it repulsed attacks Tuesday on the disputed Siachen Glacier in northern Kashmir. There was no immediate comment from Pakistan.

13. US Views on India-Pakistan Relations

The Associated Press (Barry Schweid, “U.S. URGES INDIA, PAKISTAN DIALOGUE,” Washington, 08/10/99) reported that the US urged India and Pakistan to rise above new tensions and resume the “very positive steps” of discussing their differences face-to-face. White House spokesman David Leavy said, “We are urging restraint and prudence. Clearly no one benefits from the rise in tensions. When there’s an absence of dialogue between the two sides, instances like this can take place. No one benefits from an absence of dialogue.” US State Department spokesman James P. Rubin also asked for dialogue and urged restraint. Rubin also said that the US has no role to play in a dispute over the downing of a Pakistani surveillance aircraft by a missile from an Indian MiG-21.

The New York Times carried an editorial (“NEW TENSIONS ON THE SUBCONTINENT,” 08/11/99) which argued that the recent India-Pakistan air battle shows the urgent need for the two nations to ease distrust and improve communications. The editorial said, “Now that India and Pakistan have tested nuclear weapons, there is little margin for miscalculation in their relationship. There is no guarantee that the presence of nuclear weapons on both sides will produce the kind of relatively stable balance of terror that prevailed between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war.” The editorial further argued that it is essential that India and Pakistan must ensure that minor military clashes do not escalate into volatile confrontations. [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

II. Republic of Korea

1. Four-Party Peace Talks

The Korea Herald (Shin Yong-bae, “EXPERTS QUESTION EFFICACY OF FOUR-PARTY PEACE TALKS,” Seoul, 08/11/99), The Korea Times (“KOREAN TALKS END WITH LITTLE PROGRESS, NO DATE FOR NEW ROUND,” Seoul, 08/10/99) and The Korea Times (“FOUR-PARTY TALKS BECOME LACKLUSTER,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that in the wake of another round of four-way talks on peace for the Korean Peninsula, experts had few positive words on the future of the talks – and some even questioned if they should continue. The ROK, the DPRK, the US, and the PRC closed their sixth round of talks with scant progress in Geneva on Monday, failing to set the date for the next session due to objections by the DPRK. DPRK chief delegate Kim Gye-kwan said after the talks that the DPRK would not attend future talks unless two of its demands were met. They include the discussion of the withdrawal of US troops in the ROK and the conclusion of a peace treaty between the DPRK and the US. The ROK analysts said that the failure to produce substantial results in the latest meeting would spread doubts about the efficacy of the talks.

2. DPRK-US Missile Talks

Chosun Ilbo (Kim Hyun-ho, “SECRET MISSILE TALKS SEE IMPROVEMENTS,” Geneva, 08/10/99) reported that sources revealed on Tuesday that bilateral US-DPRK discussions on the DPRK’s ballistic missile testing are making progress. While the Four-Party Talks ended on Tuesday without any future meeting settled, US Special Ambassador Charles Kartman and the DPRK’s Kim Gye-kwan met on Monday night for an additional 90 minutes after the official talks ended. In the meeting, Kartman told Kim that the DPRK’s reaction to US offers made on August 3 were conveyed to the US and that the US was considering them positively.

3. DPRK Missile Test

Joongang Ilbo (“‘NK UNLIKELY TO FIRE MISSILE NEXT FEW WEEKS,’ US SAYS,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that US Defense Department spokesman Kenneth Bacon said on Tuesday that the DPRK is not expected to launch an improved missile in the next few weeks, but the Clinton administration’s information is not conclusive. He said that the DPRK itself has talked about the possibility of a missile test. As for sending two US monitoring vessels to the region from Japan, Bacon said, “We obviously take responsible actions to position ourselves to monitor tests that countries suggest they may be about to conduct.” He added, “We don’t expect anything to happen imminently.”

4. US Military Views of DPRK

Chosun Ilbo (Yoo Yong-won, “US COMMANDER SPEAKS ON NK THREAT,” Seoul, 08/10/99) and The Korea Herald (Lee Sung-yul, “GEN. TILELLI SAYS N. KOREA’S MISSILE TESTING ‘WRONG CHOICE’,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that General John H. Tilelli, commander-in-chief of the ROK-US Combined Forces Command, said at a press Conference on Tuesday that the present situation on the Peninsula is the most insecure since the armistice 53 years ago. He added that the ROK-US Combined Forces maintain the utmost defense preparedness. Appointed to his current post in July 1996, and expecting to retire around this November, General Tilelli based his assertion on the possibilities of a DPRK attack on questionable social stability in the DPRK, the recent military conflict in the West Sea, and pending issues regarding the DPRK’s missile tests. Tilelli emphasized that the Combined Forces Command was prepared for any sudden attack from the DPRK under a strategic plan, Con-Plan 5029, but he added that specifics could not be mentioned due to security. Regarding the possibility of the DPRK conducting another missile test, he stated that the DPRK would be making a big mistake if they did fire another missile.

5. ROK Policy toward DPRK

Joongang Ilbo (Shim Shang-bok, “‘NO DECISION ON MILITARY ACTION OVER NK’S MISSILE’,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that Hwang Won-tahk, senior adviser to ROK President Kim Dae-jung in charge of foreign and security affairs, said on August 9 in a closed session of the National Security Committee, that at present the government is considering economic and diplomatic penalties in the case the DPRK proceeds with its missile launch. Hwang stated, “No decision has yet been made by the three countries, South Korea, the United States and Japan, whether or not to mobilize military forces against North Korea if it test-fires another long-range ballistic missile.” Military measures could be considered in the light of further developments, he added.

6. DPRK Flood Victims

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, “SEOUL TO HAND OVER BODIES OF TWO N. KOREA FLOOD VICTIMS AUG. 16,” Seoul, 08/11/99) reported that the ROK Unification Ministry said on Tuesday that the DPRK agreed to accept repatriation of the bodies of two DPRK flood victims washed into the ROK by rains last week. “Six officials from each side will participate in the delivery at the truce village of Panmunjom at 10 a.m., August 16,” a ministry official said. The agreement on the procedures and timetable concerning the hand-over came at a meeting of Red Cross officials of the two Koreas, said Cho Kun-shik, director-general at the ROK ministry’s Humanitarian Affairs Bureau. In an unprecedented move, the DPRK expressed its willingness on Monday to receive the bodies, ministry officials said. It was the first time the DPRK accepted repatriation of bodies since 1996, when it took back two. In May this year, the DPRK refused the ROK’s proposal on Red Cross contacts for repatriation.

7. ROK-Japan Relations

The Korea Times (Son Key-young, “SEOUL OPPOSES TURNING YASUKUNI AS NAT’L CEMETERY,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung’s government, in pursuing neighborly relations with Japan, has refrained from issuing any statement on Japan’s recent decision to enshrine the rising-sun flag and an imperial hymn as national symbols. However, ROK officials are of the opinion that Japan’s efforts to turn the Yasukuni Shrine into a national cemetery are “nonsense.” Noteworthy is that Japan’s recent moves are being viewed in the context of its long- term efforts to build up its international profile and military strength to levels commensurate with its economic power. The ROK public sentiment is that the rising-sun flag is still a symbol of terror for Koreans who lived under Japan’s colonial rule. To older Koreans who were students during the 1910-45 colonial period, Kimigayo was something they were forced to chant everyday as part of Japan’s efforts to turn Koreans into a subordinate clan of the Japanese empire. Meanwhile, the official reacted negatively to the Japanese ruling party’s desire to smooth the way for politicians, including the prime minister, to make official pilgrimages to a Tokyo shrine for dead soldiers, including war criminals. The August 15 visits by politicians have become an annual event which inevitably trigger criticism at home and among neighboring Asian countries.

8. DPRK-Japan Relations

The Korea Times (“N.KOREA MARKS LIBERATION WITH BLISTERING ATTACK ON JAPAN,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that the DPRK on Tuesday marked the 54th year since its liberation from Japan with a 10-page statement demanding compensation and threatening “merciless retaliation.” The DPRK warned that Japan’s national flag and anthem — enshrined in law by Japan on Monday — could lead to a fresh Japanese invasion force across Asia. It also defended the launch of a ballistic missile last year as a satellite launch that was a “shining scientific and technological achievement.” The statement demanded that Japan stop “stifling” the DPRK and apologize and give “full compensation” to the Korean people for its past crimes. The statement said that while the DPRK would welcome “with pleasure” the restoration of good relations through Japanese “liquidation of the past,” it would not “remain a passive onlooker” indefinitely.

III. People’s Republic of China

1. Four-Party Talks

China Daily (“PEACE TALKS ON KOREAN PENINSULA ‘PRODUCTIVE’,” Geneva, 8/11/99, A1) reported that the sixth plenary session of the four-party talks to reduce tension on the Korean Peninsula and establish a peace regime there ended in Geneva on August 9 after “useful and productive discussions which were conducted in a business-like and cordial manner.” The four parties involved issued a joint press statement to this effect at the end of the five-day meeting chaired by the PRC. On August 6 and 7, sub-committees on tension-reduction measures on the peninsula and the establishment of a peace regime had further discussions on substantive issues and proposals for agenda items. On the issue of tension reduction, the parties raised some new proposals or reiterated previous ones. On the establishment of a peace regime, the statement noted that the parties tabled their “respective ideas” and “such an exploration helped deepen the mutual understanding of each other’s positions on the establishment of a peace regime.” The parties agreed that the date for the seventh plenary session will be set later at a meeting of the four-party working group. In accordance with the established procedure, the next round of talks will be chaired by the ROK. However, the DPRK representative declined to agree to a specific date for new talks. DPRK Vice-Foreign Minister Kim Gye-gwan said that the DPRK would do so “when there is the right atmosphere for us to attend.” He added “We are convinced that we can provide such a kind of atmosphere through promoting the bilateral relations between DPR Korea and the US.”

2. ROK-DPRK Relations

China Daily (“ROK SENDS 450 GOATS TO DPRK,” Seoul, 8/5/99, A11) reported that a civic group from the ROK was scheduled on August 4 to send a shipload of goats to the DPRK in an attempt to supply children with desperately needed milk, an official said. “Some 450 goats will leave for DPRK from Inchon port today (August 4),” an ROK Unification Ministry official told reporters. The ROK’s Sharing Movement, with the approval of the government, has been preparing for the high-profile shipment since last year to alleviate starvation in the DPRK. “We decided to send goats because they can provide poor children suffering from malnutrition with high-quality fresh milk,” Lee Jong Mu, an official from the group, said.

3. DPRK Floods

China Daily (“42 DIE IN DPRK FLOODS, TYPHOON,” Seoul, 8/7/99, A8) reported that at least 42 people were killed in the DPRK and more than 39,000 left homeless by floods and a typhoon, aid officials said on August 7. Areas around the southern city of Kaesong appeared particularly hard-hit by the torrential rains and typhoon Olga, which struck on August 3, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) said from Pyongyang. “Many of the deaths occurred during mudslides after the typhoon hit,” Robert Goodwyn, head of IFRC’s delegation in the DPRK told reporters in Beijing. At least 94 people were injured by inundations and landslides triggered by 250 to 733 millimeters of rain which fell in five days.

4. PRC-US Relations

People’s Daily (“CHINA FIRMLY OPPOSES US BILL,” Beijing, 8/6/99, A4) reported that in response to a journalist’s question, PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao on August 5 said that the PRC strongly resents and firmly opposes a recent bill submitted by a few US Congress representatives in support of “one China, one Taiwan” and “the independence of Taiwan.” Zhu said that the PRC side has already issued a serious complaint to the US Government concerning the bill, and has urged the US to take concrete actions to prevent its passage. “China demands the US congress representatives immediately stop their actions of interfering in China’s internal affairs and infringing upon China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity,” Zhu said. He described the bill as “a serious infringement of China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, a gross interference in China’s internal affairs, and an open provocation against all the Chinese people,” according to People’s Daily.

5. Across-Taiwan Straits Relations

China Daily (“TAIWAN BUSINESS PROTECTED,” Zhang Yan, 8/6/99, A1) reported that Shi Guangsheng, head of the PRC Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC), said on August 5 in Beijing that the central government will continue to encourage Taiwan businesses to invest in the mainland and ensure that all of their legal rights will remain protected. “Under the ‘one China’ principle, we will adopt practical and flexible measures to promote the continual development of the cross-Straits trade and economy cooperation,” Shi said at a MOFTEC meeting condemning the “two states” statement made by Taiwan leader Lee Teng-hui. Statistics from the General Administration of Customs show that the cumulative cross-Straits trade volume over the decades hit US$147.6 billion by the end of June. By June there were 42,653 Taiwan-invested business projects in the mainland, involving US$42.8 billion in pledged capital and US$22.6 billion in actual input. Of the 42,653 projects, a total of 1,231 new Taiwanese- invested projects were approved in the first half of this year, with pledged investment surging 25.41 percent from a year earlier to hit US$1.52 billion, MOFTEC sources said. The mainland has become the first investment choice for Taiwan businesses. It is also Taiwan’s second largest export market and its third biggest trading partner, the daily said. Shi blamed Lee for spoiling the good atmosphere in the cross-Straits economic cooperation area by preaching the “two states” theory. “If the ‘one China’ principle is abandoned, the cross-Straits trade and economic exchanges will be destroyed fundamentally and deprived of opportunities and conditions for further development,” Shi said.

6. Japanese Visits to Yasukuni Shrine

People’s Daily (“OBUCHI DECIDES NOT TO VISIT YASUKUNI SHRINE,” Yue Shaoyan, Tokyo, 8/6/99, A6) reported that Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi said on August 5 that he had decided that he will not go to visit the Yasukuni Shrine on August 15. Obuchi made the remarks when answering reporters’ questions after a cabinet meeting. He said, “considering factors from different aspects, (I) decided not to visit the Yasukuni Shrine.” In addition, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiromu Nonaka and some other officials including Foreign Minister Koumura Masahiko also expressed they will not go to visit the Yasukuni Shrine on August 15. However, some members of the Japanese cabinet still said they would go to visit the Shrine on August 15 regardless of the opposition from Asian countries, the report said.

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Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Wade L. Huntley:
Berkeley, California, United States

Lee Dong-young:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China


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