NAPSNet Daily Report 10 August, 1999

Recommended Citation

"NAPSNet Daily Report 10 August, 1999", NAPSNet Daily Report, August 10, 1999,


I. United States

II. Republic of Korea

I. United States

1. Four Party Talks

The sixth plenary session of the Four Party Talks (“KOREA FOUR PARTY TALKS AUGUST 9 JOINT PRESS STATEMENT,” Geneva, USIA Text, 08/09/99) issued the following joint statement. “The sixth plenary session of the Four Party Talks, chaired by the People’s Republic of China, was held in Geneva from August 5 to August 9, 1999. Delegations of the four parties, the DPRK, PRC, ROK and U.S. had useful and productive discussions, which were conducted in a business-like and cordial manner. The two subcommittees that were established — to discuss, respectively, tension reduction on the Korean Peninsula and establishment of a peace regime there — held meetings over two days, on August 6-7. In accordance with the agreements reached at the 5th Plenary of the Four Party Talks, the parties continued to discuss substantive issues and proposals for agenda items, considered and sought measures to reduce tension that fit the situation on the Korean Peninsula and explored further the outlines of a future peace regime there. In the subcommittee meeting to discuss tension reduction, the parties raised some new proposals or reiterated previous ones. Each party recognized from the current situation on the Korean Peninsula the importance and urgency of tension reduction there. The parties expressed the hope to expedite the process of talks. In the subcommittee meeting to discuss how to establish a peace regime, the parties tabled their respective ideas. Such exploration helped deepen the mutual understanding of each other’s positions on the establishment of a peace regime. All parties, sharing the value of regular Four Party meetings, agreed to arrange the next round as quickly as possible and further agreed to schedule the 7th Plenary at a meeting of the Four Party Working Group. In accordance with established procedure, the new Chair state, the ROK, will prepare for the next plenary session. The four delegations expressed their deep appreciation to the Swiss government for its support for the meeting and for the hospitality it extended to the delegations.”

2. DPRK Missile Test

The Washington Post (Doug Struck, “NORTH KOREA THREATENS TO END TALKS,” Seoul, 08/10/99, A14) reported that ROK analysts surmised that the DPRK is bluffing about test-firing another missile in order to get food and other economic assistance, and ultimately will cancel the launch. Lho Kyong-soo, professor of international politics at Seoul National University, said, “They must count the costs and benefits, and they must see that the losses are far greater than the potential gains.” [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

Reuters (“U.S. SEES NO FURTHER WARNING FOR NORTH KOREA,” Washington, 08/09/99) reported that the US said on Monday that it saw no need for another formal warning to dissuade the DPRK from test-firing a long-range missile. US State Department spokesman James Rubin said that he could not confirm reports that Japan, the US, and the ROK would probably issue a “concrete warning” if the DPRK appears ready to make the launch. He said that US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and her Japanese and ROK counterparts had already warned Pyongyang of “serious consequences” when they met in Singapore in late July. Rubin said, “That’s a pretty high level statement of policy from the three countries and I’m not aware there’s any real need to go beyond that statement from Singapore. We hope that North Korea embraces a positive path toward a constructive relationship with the United States, where North Korea would forswear further testing or exports of long-range missiles.”

3. DPRK Fighter Purchase from Kazakhstan

The Associated Press (“KAZAK MINISTER FIRED IN ARMS SCANDAL,” Almaty, 08/09/99) reported that Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s press service said that Kazakhstan Defense Minister Mukhtar Altynbayev and Nurtai Abykayev were fired on Monday for their involvement in the sale of six MiG fighter jets to the DPRK. The press release said that the two were dismissed for a “blatant violation of the rules of selling military equipment.” Nazarbayev, who ordered the dismissals following his Security Council meeting on Monday, also fired senior Defense Ministry and State Security Committee officials, as well as top executives from a company that was involved in the deal. Officials in Azerbaijan’s capital, Baku, found the disassembled Soviet-made MiGs on board a Russian plane that arrived from Kazakstan on March 19. Azeri customs officials said the cargo was meant for Yugoslavia, in violation of a UN arms embargo. The crew initially said the MiGs were bound for the DPRK. Russia said their destination was Slovakia, and the Kazakh government said they were en route to the Czech Republic. A Kazakh company that owned the decommissioned planes, built between 1964 and 1968, later said the MiGs were headed to Bosnia-Herzegovina. The MiGs were sent back to Kazakhstan in late April. Nazarbayev’s press service said authorities have ignored his order to investigate the incident. Nazarbayev on Monday ordered a new investigation.

4. ROK-US Military Exercises

Reuters (“S.KOREA, US TO STAGE ANNUAL WARGAMES NEXT WEEK,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that, according to the United Nations Command (UNC), the US is scheduled to begin an annual military exercise with the ROK next week. The UNC said that the August 16-27 exercise, known as Ulchi Focus Lens, will involve 14,000 US forces based in the ROK and 56,000 ROK troops. The UNC added that this month’s military exercise aimed to improve joint coordination, plans and systems for “contingency operations.” Ulchi Focus Lens is the largest of several exercises staged in the ROK annually.

5. DPRK Famine

The Associated Press (“WORLD FOOD PROGRAM CHIEF CALLS FOR CONTINUED N KOREA AID,” Beijing, 08/10/99) reported that, according to Catherine Bertini, executive director of the World Food Program (WFP), international donors should continue to provide food aid to the DPRK even if it goes ahead with a missile test. Bertini said that millions of people remain in a very precarious state after years of food shortages. She added that although this year’s harvest was expected to be similar to last year’s, and thus better than the worst years of famine, the DPRK still will not be able to feed itself said. Bertini said that the WFP would expand efforts to manufacture food in the DPRK for young children and pregnant women.

6. ROK Gift Cattle to DPRK

The New York Times (Calvin Sims, “NORTH KOREA SEES A PLOT AFTER DEATHS OF GIFT COWS,” Seoul, 08/08/99) reported that, according to the ROK’s Yonhap news agency, the DPRK’s official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) announced recently that about half of the cattle given it by the ROK’s Hyundai Group had died. KCNA said that the deaths were part of a sinister plot by the ROK’s National Intelligence Service (NIS), which it accused of force-feeding the cows with vinyl rope, large nails, and other indigestible items before the cattle were shipped to the DPRK. KCNA stated, “We severely reprove the Intelligence Service for resorting to such a despicable trick in a bid to hinder and frustrate nongovernmental cooperation between the North and South.” An NIS spokesman denied the accusation, adding, “It is absolutely untrue that we planted any type of surveillance device on the cows.” Western envoys and international aid workers in the ROK have confirmed that many of the donated cattle have died under mysterious circumstances. A senior western diplomat said, “While we don’t believe that the South Korean Government had anything to do with the cattle’s untimely death, it is certainly curious that so many of these cows, which were intended to relieve hunger, perished this way. If we find this curious, one can only imagine the level of paranoia spreading through North Korea.” International aid workers said that they had received reports that several hundred of the donated cows died. The workers said that during the first autopsies, DPRK veterinarians searched the animal carcasses for electronic devices and tested for viruses. Hyundai Group spokesman Kim Sang-ryun said that the company had received no indication from the DPRK that so many cows have died. Kim said, “If it’s now the case that hundreds of cows have died, we are very sad to hear that because we had hoped that the cows would be bred and used to provide nourishment.”

7. DPRK-Japan Relations

The Associated Press (“N.KOREA WARNS JAPAN OF RETALIATION,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that the DPRK issued a statement on Tuesday threatening Japan with “merciless retaliation” unless it atones for its colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula. The statement was issued to mark the 54th anniversary of Korea’s liberation from Japan on August 15, 1945. The DPRK’s official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) stated, “If Japan opts to open good-neighborly relations through liquidation of the past, the DPRK will welcome it with pleasure. But if it repeats its crime-woven history and undertakes a reckless provocation, the DPRK will never miss the opportunity of meting out merciless retaliation.” Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiromu Nonaka said that Japan was prepared to improve ties with the DPRK if it were ready to abandon its nuclear weapons and missile programs and resolve other pending issues between the two countries. Nonaka said, “We believe it is important to respond by balancing dialogue.”

8. Japanese Fighter Purchase

The Associated Press (“JAPAN’S FIGHTER JET DELAYED,” Tokyo, 08/10/99) reported that, according to a Japanese Defense Agency official, flaws found in a prototype of Japan’s next-generation fighter jet have forced further delays in the completion of the project. The F-2 jet, which is being jointly developed with the US at a cost of US$2.78 billion, was already nine months behind schedule because of wing defects. According to the agency spokesman Kazuki Tanaka, Japanese Defense Agency chief Hosei Norota said on Tuesday that the deadline for completing the F-2 will be extended for another three months until March of next year. The F-2 is based on the US F-16 and is intended to replace Japan’s aging F-1 fleet. The US partner is Lockheed Martin Corporation.

9. Cross-Strait Military Situation

The Washington Times (Bill Gertz, “CHINA’S TALK OF FORCES BUILDUP OVER TAIWAN RAISES NEW FEARS,” Washington, 08/10/99, 3) reported that PRC Defense Minister Chi Haotian issued a statement that said that the PRC is building up its forces in preparation for a regional conflict with the US. Chi was quoted by Hong Kong’s Cheng Ming newspaper as saying, “Our strategic principles must be based on the scenario of military intervention by the United States at the deployment level. We should fight a high-technology war and, more importantly, be prepared against the military intervention by a bloc of countries led by the United States and fight a modern, high-technology war of a considerable scale.” The newspaper also quoted Chi as outlining several scenarios for war against Taiwan and the US for “the liberation of Taiwan.” The Cheng Ming newspaper also said that PRC President Jiang Zemin has signed orders directing military forces in regions near Taiwan to increase their combat readiness, and that Chi outlined the war-fighting scenarios at a meeting of generals on July 14. The strategy would involve aiming PRC land-based missiles at more than 150 military and industrial targets in Taiwan, including nuclear power facilities, communications facilities, and “political nerve centers.” The report added that the PRC would be forced to suspend its economic development to “move into war” that “may also evolve into World War III” because of the likelihood that the US would take part in defending Taiwan. [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

Reuters (Lawrence Chung, “TAIWAN SEES NO SIGN THAT CHINA PLANNING INVASION,” Taipei, 08/10/99) reported that Taiwan Defense Ministry information officer Major General Hu Yuan-chieh said on Tuesday that Taiwan does not believe that an increase in military activity by the PRC would lead to an attack on Taiwan. Hu said that the PRC military activities were being carried out with restraint. Hu stated, “We have detected no escort planes to cover the communist warplanes that flew along the ‘center line.’ Nor have we seen any such planes flying from west to east toward Taiwan.” Hu also said that the Dong Feng-31 missile test-fired by the PRC on August 2 had a range of up to 4,970 miles and was therefore not likely to be used against Taiwan. He said that the information gathered by the Defense Ministry showed that the PRC was unlikely in the near term to conduct large war games in the Taiwan Strait.

The Associated Press (Christopher Bodeen, “CHINA JETS SAID IN TAIWAN AIRSPACE,” Taipei, 08/10/99) reported that, according to Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui, two PRC warplanes crossed into Taiwan’s military space over the Taiwan Strait. Lee added that the incursions were apparently accidental. Lee did not say what type of jets they were or when the PRC jets crossed the strait’s center line. Lee said that one plane crossed 3 miles over the strait’s center line and another crossed 6 miles over the line. Lee said, “They came over the center line, which is pretty unclear, probably because their planes were flying too fast.” However, Chung Shen-ning, a Taiwanese military data analyst, said that although the PRC has increased training flights in recent weeks, its warplanes fly in a mostly north- south direction, along the PRC coast and not toward Taiwan. Chung said that no military aircraft have crossed east of the center line in the Taiwan Strait. PRC officials had issued no immediate response to Lee’s comments.

10. US Congressional Visit to Taiwan

The International Herald Tribune (“TAIWAN PRESIDENT INSISTS ON EQUALITY WITH CHINA,” Taipei, 08/10/99) and the Wall Street Journal (Russell Flannery, “LEE SAYS TAIWAN STAYS COMMITTED TO ‘STATE- TO-STATE’ STANCE ON CHINA,” Taipei, 08/10/99) reported that in a meeting with a US congressional delegation led by US Representative Benjamin Gilman, Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui offered no apparent compromise on his policy toward the PRC. Lee on Monday said that it is “undeniable” that relations between the two sides are of a “special state-to-state” nature. Lee added that Taiwan “absolutely” will not accept being treated as a local government by the PRC. Lee also reaffirmed that his government would seek unification with the PRC when it has adopted a free and democratic system. [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

The Associated Press (“U.S. CONGRESSMEN BACK TAIWAN LEADER,” Taipei, 08/10/99) reported that visiting US congressmen praised Taiwan’s president Lee Teng-hui on Tuesday for his recent demand that the PRC treat Taiwan equally as a state. A statement issued by US Representative Benjamin Gilman, chairman of the House International Relations Committee, said that Lee was justified in making his appeal, and the PRC must bear responsibility for damage to security in the region. The statement read, “We strongly support President Lee’s right to address Taipei’s views. It is our view that the two sides should engage in a dialogue with equals.” The delegation left on Tuesday after a two-day visit to Taiwan.

The Associated Press (Christopher Bodeen, “TAIWAN ASSURES US ON CHINA TENSIONS,” Taipei, 08/09/99) reported that Taiwanese Defense Minister Tang Fei told visiting US congressmen on Monday that the PRC likely will keep up military pressure on Taiwan at least until Taiwan’s presidential elections in March. Tang met Benjamin Gilman, chairman of the US House International Relations Committee, and repeated earlier assurances that Taiwan will avoid any confrontation.

11. US Policy toward Taiwan

The Washington Times (Bill Gertz, “CHINA’S TALK OF FORCES BUILDUP OVER TAIWAN RAISES NEW FEARS,” Washington, 08/10/99, 3) reported that the US State Department denied a New York Times report that the US President Bill Clinton administration is secretly pressuring Taiwan to accept an interim agreement with the PRC. The New York Times reported on Monday that US Assistant Secretary of State Stanley Roth had visited Taiwan several times in recent months to urge Taiwan President Lee to recognize the PRC’s sovereignty over Taiwan in exchange for the PRC’s pledge to stay out of Taiwan’s domestic affairs. The US State Department said that Roth “has not traveled to Taiwan and has never urged any such agreement.” [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for August 10.]

12. US Port Visit to Singapore

The Associated Press (“USS CONSTELLATION IN SINGAPORE FOR TRAINING,” Singapore, 08/10/99) reported that the USS Constellation will dock in Singapore for training exercises with the Singapore navy. US Rear Admiral Commander Timothy LaFleur denied that the ship was in Singapore to observe ongoing tensions in the Taiwan Strait between the PRC and Taiwan. LaFleur said, “We have no mission with respect to the Straits of Taiwan.”

13. India-Pakistan Air Battle

The Associated Press (Zahid Hussain, “16 DIE AS PLANE SHOT DOWN BY INDIA,” Karachi, 08/10/99) and Reuters (“INDIA SHOOTS DOWN PAKISTANI AIRCRAFT,” New Delhi, 08/10/99) reported that two Indian combat jets shot down a Pakistani maritime patrol aircraft on Tuesday. India said the reconnaissance and anti-submarine aircraft had intruded into India’s airspace off the coast of the western state of Gujarat, and was attacked with an air-to- air missile when it refused to force-land. Indian Defense Ministry Spokesman said, “It came deep inside our area before noon. In spite of an early warning, when it did not show any indication of withdrawal or going back, we had no option but to shoot it.” However, Pakistan said the plane was shot down inside its territory, and all 16 people on board were killed. Pakistani Information Minister Mushahid Hussain said, “This is unprovoked aggression by India. It was a violation of Pakistani air space. Perhaps they wanted to get even for the shooting down of an Indian aircraft during the Kargil crisis.” Pakistani Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz said that the French-built Atlantic-I aircraft was on a training mission when it was shot down near a small coastal town. Aziz said, “Pakistan reserves the right to make an appropriate response in self-defense.” Aziz said wreckage of the aircraft was found a mile inside Pakistani territory.

II. Republic of Korea

1. Four-Party Peace Talks

Joongang Ilbo (“FOUR-PARTY TALKS END WITHOUT VISIBLE PROGRESS,” Seoul, 08/10/99) and The Korea Herald (Shin Yong-bae, “SIXTH ROUND OF FOUR-WAY PEACE TALKS ENDS WITH LITTLE PROGRESS,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that the two Koreas, the PRC, and the US on Monday ended their sixth round of talks with no visible progress. In a joint statement, the four countries said that they had “useful and productive discussions” and they agreed to convene a new round “as quickly as possible.” They did not specify a date. Earlier on Monday, the DPRK questioned its future participation in the talks. DPRK Vice Foreign Minister and delegation leader Kim Gye-gwan again insisted that the talks deal with its demand for the US to withdraw 37,000 troops from the ROK. The talks also should address a peace treaty between the DPRK and the US, Kim said. Other delegations had no comment as they arrived on Monday.

2. DPRK-US Missile Talks

The Korea Times (“ATMOSPHERE RIPE FOR FULL-FLEDGED MISSILE TALKS,” Seoul, 08/09/99) reported that the US is working to set up full-fledged negotiations to induce the DPRK to accept the “comprehensive approach” offered by former US Defense Secretary William Perry and to refrain from testing a long-range missile. In Geneva on Saturday, DPRK Vice Foreign Minister Kim Gye-gwan told ROK reporters that the DPRK might not fire a missile if the US drops its antagonistic policies toward the DPRK. Kim did not specify what he meant by US antagonistic policies, but officials here noted on the basis of DPRK press reports that the DPRK has called for the phasing out of US economic sanctions and the suspension of policy coordination by the ROK, Japan, and the US aimed at pressing the DPRK to accept their policies. “We believe that it is noteworthy that Kim Gye-gwan mentioned the possibility that North Korea might not fire a missile,” a Foreign Affairs-Trade Ministry official said. Therefore, the United States is striving to hold further negotiations with the DPRK in last-ditch efforts to stop it from test-firing a missile, he said. During the bilateral talks on the sidelines of the sixth round of four-party peace talks, which concluded on Sunday, DPRK delegates listened attentively to the US position on the missile issue, he added.

3. DPRK Missile Test

The Korea Herald (Shin Yong-bae, “EXPERTS DIVIDED OVER N.K. MISSILE TEST,” 08/10/99) reported that ROK analysts are debating whether or not the DPRK will follow through on its expected missile test. ROK officials dismissed speculation that a missile test is imminent. “It is true that the North is preparing for the missile launch. But our government judges that the missile test-firing is not imminent,” said an official who requested anonymity. Intelligence sources in the ROK speculated that the DPRK might test-fire the missile to mark the 51st anniversary of the DPRK government.

4. DPRK Fighter Purchase

Joongang Ilbo (Bong Hwa-shik, “NORTH KOREA FINISHES ASSEMBLING 10 MIG-21 FIGHTERS,” Seoul, 08/09/99) reported that the DPRK has reportedly finished assembling 10 MIG-21 fighters imported from the former Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). A source from the ROK government on Monday stated, “North Korea recently received containers of MIG parts, which arrived by train. More parts are still being assembled.” The government allegedly suspects the Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Uzbekistan of having supplied the MIG-21 parts to the DPRK. The news was revealed by an Austrian weekly about two weeks ago.

The Korea Times (Son Key-young, “GOV’T DISMISSES MIG-21 REPORTS AS ‘FAR-FETCHED’,” Seoul, 08/09/99) reported that an ROK government official said on Sunday that the ROK is stepping up intelligence-gathering activities, now that spy satellites have spotted the DPRK’s recent moves to repair its aging MiG-21 fighters with newly- introduced parts. However, the official dismissed as “far-fetched” recent reports by local newspapers that the DPRK has decided to buy new 40 MiG-21 fighters using diverted proceeds from Hyundai’s operation of cruise ships to Mt. Kumgang. “For the last few months, we have been closely monitoring indications regarding the North’s plan to introduce MiG-21 fighters or parts. However, we have too little evidence to size up the exact shipment of fighters or fighter parts,” the official said. He added that the DPRK’s attempted procurement of MiG-21 fighters is not related to Hyundai’s Mt. Kumgang project, because the DPRK’s procurement plan began long ago.

5. Mt. Kumgang Tour Fees

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, “GOVERNMENT, HYUNDAI OFFICIALS WORRY OVER N. KOREAN DIVERSION OF TOURISM FEE,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that ROK officials said on Monday that recent reports on the DPRK’s possible diversion of Mt. Kumgang tourism fees for military purposes have both the ROK government and Hyundai Group very concerned. Related government agencies brushed aside the possibility that the DPRK could have acquired a total of 80 jet fighters since 1995. ROK officials said that they have set about collecting information through diplomatic channels. The sensitive response of the ROK government is probably related to persistent suspicion among the government’s critics and even some officials that the DPRK might have diverted part of the money it makes on the Mt. Kumgang tour for military use, said an analyst, speaking on condition of anonymity. Both the ROK government and Hyundai officials, however, downplayed the chances that the DPRK diverted the money for military expenses. An ROK Unification Ministry official agreed, saying, “Although I cannot say concretely at this stage, we can always trace the DPRK’s use of tourism fees if we want to.” Other analysts, however, were more skeptical. Because state agencies handle the manufacturing and marketing of weapons in most socialist countries, if the DPRK had made deals with these state firms, it would be next to impossible to trace such transactions, said an unnamed analyst. Regardless of the correctness of the reports, Hyundai officials said they are worried about the adverse effects on inter-Korean business.

6. Mt. Kumgang Tour

The Korea Times (“NK ACROBATICS SHOWS RESUME FOR MT. KUMGANG TOURISTS,” Seoul, 08/09/99) reported that performances of acrobatics by a DPRK troupe will resume on Monday for the entertainment of ROK tourists visiting Mt. Kumgang. Accordingly, ROK tourists who arrived off Changjon in the East Sea aboard the Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. ship Pongnae on Sunday will have a chance to enjoy the 90-minute acrobatic show at the Kumgangsan Cultural Center after they have returned from their visit to Mt. Kumgang. A Hyundai official in charge of the program said, “It is highly significant that the essence of North Korean culture and art will be now be offered to people from the South everyday…. Many of our past tourists said that they would come back to Mt. Kumgang on our ship if the acrobatic performance was revived.”

7. DPRK-ROK Soccer Match

Joongang Ilbo (Kang Joo-an, “SOUTH WORKERS SOCCER TEAM DEPART FOR PYONGYANG,” Seoul, 08/09/99) and The Korea Herald (“LABORERS TO SQUARE OFF IN S-N SOCCER GAME IN PYONGYANG,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that the Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KCTU) delegation departed August 9 for the DPRK for the first inter-Korean workers’ soccer match. The 37-member delegation departed Seoul for Tianjin, PRC at 12:55 pm and will arrive at Sunan Airport near Pyongyang on the afternoon of August 10. After goodwill matches on August 12 and 13, ROK unionists will return to Seoul through Panmunjom. The delegation consists of 15 KCTU executives and 22 soccer players from the KCTU general body.

8. DPRK Software Development

Chosun Ilbo (Kim In, “NK LAGS SOUTH IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT,” Seoul, 08/09/99) and The Korea Herald (“NORTH KOREAN-MADE COMPUTER PROGRAMS UP TO 5 YEARS BEHIND SOUTH’S, REPORT SAYS,” Seoul, 08/10/99) reported that the ROK Ministry of Unification revealed on Monday that the DPRK exerted itself in computer software development in the mid 1990s after orders from Kim Jong-il. Despite these efforts, the DPRK is estimated to be 3 to 5 years behind the ROK because of a lack of technology. The Ministry said in a report entitled, “The Present Conditions of North Korea’s Computerization Development,” that the gap will widen as computer software programs are upgraded two or three times every year in the ROK. The report predicted that the DPRK will try hard to adapt the technology of developed countries by inviting professors of the pro-DPRK federation of Korean residents in Japan, Chochongnyon. In the DPRK, software developments are mainly conducted at university research institutes, the Chosun Computer Center, Pyongyang Program Center Science Institute, and Eunbyul Computer Technology Trade Center. Meanwhile, hardware development started in 1982 by assembling and producing 8-Bit personal computers and currently has the capacity to produce 30,000 units of 32-Bit computers a year.

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Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Wade L. Huntley:
Berkeley, California, United States

Lee Dong-young:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China


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