NATO Reference Documents

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"NATO Reference Documents", nuke policy, January 01, 1999,

NOTE: This page only provides links through 1999. For subsequent years the Non-Nuclear NATO Network has been merged with the Nuclear Policy Project.

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References From 1999

  • George W. Bush, A Distinctly American Internationalism, (November 19, 1999)
  • Clinton Extends National Emergency on WMD, The White House, (Nov 10, 1999)
  • UN Disarmament Committee Approves Disarmament Resolutions, from UN Press Release, (Nov 9, 1999) . See also the full version of the New Agenda draft text.
  • Canadian Defense Minister Says NATO Nuclear Systems Are Y2K Safe, Canadian Senate, (Nov 5, 1999). See also the the Canadian government’s Pentagon Denies NATO-Nukes Pullout, Department of Defense, (Nov 4, 1999).
  • Dutch Parliamentary Debate On Nuclear Policy, (Nov 4, 1999) [report from Karel Koster].
  • Dutch Foreign Minister: NATO Strategic Concept Language Blocks Nuclear Disarmament, (Oct 14, 1999).
  • Pentagon Press Briefing On Report, (Oct 20, 1999).
  • Hans M. Kristensen, Secrecy On A Sliding Scale: U.S. Nuclear Weapons Deployments And Danish Non-Nuclear Policy, the Nautilus Institute, (Oct 20, 1999).
  • Hans M. Kristensen, Secrecy on a Sliding Scale, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1999.
  • U.S. Strategic Air Command, Status of Nuclear Weapons Storage (June 30, 1958), n.d. [1958]. Obtained under FOIA.
  • Robert Norris, William Arkin and William Burr, Where They Were, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1999.
  • U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, History of the Custody and Deployment of Nuclear Weapons: July 1945 through September 1977, Washington, D.C., 1977 (excerpt only) [PDF version].
  • Russian Military Doctrine Draft, BBC, (Oct 11, 1999). [note: about 25 pages]
  • Nuclear Lab Directors Say Nuclear Weapons Work, Department of Energy Press Release, (Oct 8, 1999).
  • U.S. Military Wants Test Ban, Canegie Proliferation Brief, (Oct 7, 1999).
  • Former Defense Chiefs Oppose Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, reprinted in the Washington Times, (Oct 6, 1999).
  • Seismological Society of America Says CTBT Can Be Verified, (Oct 6, 1999).
  • James Rubin Talks About CTBT Issue, Security Issues Digest, (Oct 1, 1999).
  • New Agenda Coalition Resolution Calls For Nuclear Disarmament, (Sep 30, 1999).
  • Joshua Handler writes: Russia’s Nuclear and Strategic Forces in 2008-2013, (Sep 23, 1999) [no text-only version available].
  • Statement On “New Agenda” Meeting On Nuclear Weapons, (Sep 23, 1999).
  • Y2K NGO Conference Calls For Nuclear De-Alert, World Atomic Safety Holiday (WASH), (Sep 20, 1999).
  • Nuclear De-Alerting Effort Underway In European Parliament, Proposition One, (Sep 17, 1999).
  • “The Rise And Fall of Start II”, Carnegie Endowment, (Sep 1999). Also available in a PDF-format.
  • General Clark Briefing On Kosovo Strike Assessment, Security Issues Digest No. 180, (Sep 17, 1999).
  • NATO’s Nuclear Policy Missing From Toronto Meeting. Several documents are available:
    • Cohen and Shelton News Conference at Toronto Meeting, Security Issues Digest No. 183, (Sep 22, 1999)
    • Kramer Outlines Goals for Upcoming NATO Discussions, Security Issues Digest No. 178, (Sep 15, 1999).
    • Dod’s Kramer Briefs on Upcoming NATO Ministerial, Security Issues Digest No. 179, (Sep 16, 1999).; and
    • NATO’s Toronto Meeting website.
  • Advisory Of De-Alerting Motion In Senate of Canada, Senator Douglas Roche, (Sep 14, 1999).
  • U.S. Commission for National Security, New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century (Phase I), (Sep 14, 1999). . See also the Support Research And Analysis (PDF-format – 1.49 MB).
  • Background Briefing On Cohen’s Trip To Russia, DOD, (Sep 10, 1999).
  • Dutch Government Explains Its Nuclear Policy. Several documents are available:
    • Letter from September 9;
    • Letter from August 30.
    • Letter from March 12.
  • Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Council, Foreign Missile Developments and the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States Through 2015, September 1999.
  • The Carnegie Endowment’s review and related news articles about the CIA report on missile proliferation, (Sep 1999).
  • Canadian Senator Douglas Roche Motion For De-Alerting of Nuclear Weapons, (Sep 1999). See also Senator Roche’s website.
  • Canada’s New Democratic Party Adopts Nuclear Abolition Policy, (Aug 1999).
  • Nautilus Nuclear Program Director comments on earlier STRATFOR analysis on China-Taiwan crisis, (Aug 23, 1999).
  • Daryl Kimball With Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers commentson the recent U.S./Russian Nuclear Talks, (Aug 20, 1999).
  • Jennifer Simons Statement on Nanoose Expropriation, (Aug 17, 1999).
  • India’s Nuclear Deterrence Paper Released. Several reference documents are available:
    • Draft Report of National Security Advisory Board on Indian Nuclear Doctrine, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, (Aug 17, 1999) [text-only version].
    • Opening remarks by Indian National Security Adviser Mr. Brajesh Mishra, (Aug 17, 1999)
    • See excerpts from official U.S. government reactions.
    • Also visit the Indian Ministry of External Affairs webpage with links to numerous reactions to India crossing the nuclear threshold.
  • China’s Threat to Taiwan: The Strategy of Bluff, STRATFOR Global Intelligence Update, (Aug 9, 1999).
  • Congressional proposal to de-alert nuclear weapons, (Aug 5, 1999).
  • Joshua Handler, Lifting the Lid on Russia’s Nuclear Weapon Storage, Jane’s Intelligence Review, (Aug 1, 1999).
  • New CND report: The Next Chevaline Scandal?”, (Aug 1999).
  • Hans M. Kristensen, Japan Under the Nuclear Umbrella: U.S. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War Planning in Japan During the Cold War,The Nautilus Institute, Berkeley, CA, July 1999. (PDF-format)
  • Jacques deLisle of the Foreign Policy Research Institute writes: The Taiwan Issue, (Jul 26, 1999).
  • Facing Nuclear Dangers: An Action Plan for the 21st Century, the report of the Tokyo Forum for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, (July 25, 1999). The document is also available in a PDF version and a text-only format. A Japanese version is available here.
  • Disarmament Bill introduced in the House of Representatives, (Jul 16, 1999).
  • White House fact sheet on U.S. nonproliferation record, (Jul 15, 1999).
  • Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Report of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Washington, D.C., (Jul 14, 1999), (PDF-format (1.6MB)).
  • Rocky Road for NPT Review, Disarmament Diplomacy reprint of remarks by Acronym director Rebecca Johnson, (Jul 13, 1999). Also visit the Acronym Institute.
  • Press Briefing by Russian Defense Minister on the Zapad-99 military exercise, (Jul 9, 1999). For previous reports about Zapad-99, go here.
  • The Austrian Parliament’s Nuclear-Free Act, (Jul 1, 1999).
  • Anatoliy Stepanovich Dyakov and Pavel Lenardovich Podvig: Fate of START Treaties, ABM Treaty Viewed, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, (Jul 2, 1999).
  • Abolition 2000: The St. Petersburg Declaration, (Jun 19, 1999). Gohere for a text-only version.
  • U.S. And Russia To Attempt New Nuclear Talks. Several items are available:
    • Official U.S.-Russian statement. Also available in text-only version.
    • Nuclear excerpts from White House news briefing. Go here for full briefing.
    • Also read the analysis by the Council for a Liveable World.
  • Russian Ratification of START II Before START III Is “Preferable,” White House Says. Go here for nuclear excerpts from White House news briefing, or here for full briefing.
  • No First Use Is Out of the Question and Nuclear Bombs Stay in Europe, NATO Officials Tell IPPNW, IPPNW, (Jun 9, 1999).
  • European Council’s Russian Policy Statement, (Jun 4, 1999). For a text-only version, go here).
  • Duma Deputy Writes on Navy Role in Russian Strategic Concept, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, (Jun 4, 1999).
  • European Council Issues Statement About Common European Policy on Security and Defense, contributed by Sharon Riggle, (Jun 3, 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
  • Navy Deputy Commander Outlines Future Russian Naval Doctrine, Morskoy Sbornik (Moscow), (May 1999).
  • Senator Roche’s Report/Analysis of NPT Conference, unattributed, (May 25, 1999).
  • Statement by the New Agenda at NPT PREPCOM Meeting, (May 12, 1999).
  • NATO Strategic Concept Triggers Senate Amendment to Defense Bill, U.S. Senate, Amendment 377 to S.1059, (May 24, 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
  • Chinese Commandant Writes About Effects of Kosovo on Global Security, Liaowang (Beijing), (May 15, 1999).
  • NATO Nuclear Strategy Review, No First Use, Pre-emptive Counter-Proliferation, excerpt from NGO presentation to the NPT PREPCOM meeting in New York, (May 11, 1999). This is also available in text-only version.
    To see the full NGO presentation, go here.
  • U.K. House of Commons Debates Nuclear Policy, Report from the Acronym Institute, (May 10, 1999).
    U.S. State Department 1999 assessment on terrorism, (Apr 1999). For a quick-view of the number of terrorist acts 1978-1998, go here.
  • Senator Roche Writes: NATO Summit Commits to Nuclear Policy Review, (Apr 29, 1999).
  • The NATO Washington Summit.
    • Washington Summit Communiqué, NATO Press Release NAC-S(99)64, (Apr 24, 1999).
    • Nato’s New Strategic Concept, (Apr 25, 1999). For text-only format, go here. Also available are the nuclear paragraphs in an excerpt format, or the previous Concept from 1991.
    • Fact Sheet: NATO’s New Strategic Concept, (Apr 24, 1999). For text-only version, go here.
    • Fact sheet: NATO on Weapons of Mass Destruction, (Apr 24, 1999). For text-only version, go here.
    • Fact Sheet: NATO on Defense Capabilities Initiative, (Apr 24, 1999). A text-only version is available here.
    • For a variety of other information from the Summit, go here.
  • Canadian Senator Douglas Roche’s analysis and reaction to the Canadian Government’s response on Canadian nuclear disarmament policy, (Apr 20, 1999).
  • Canadian Government Response to Committee Report on Nuclear Disarmament.
    • Department of Foreign Affairs, press release, (Apr 19, 1999). Also available in text-only format.
    • The Canadian Government’s response to the Foreign Affairs Committee report. A text-only version is available here.
    • The Canadian Government’s statement on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation objectives, (Apr 19, 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
    • Related Department of Foreign Affairs news releases.
    • Related Department of Foreign Affairs statements.
  • Excerpts from the Dutch Foreign Minister van Aartsen’s letter to the Dutch Parliament about the NATO summit, (Apr 19, 1999). The letter is also available in a text-only version.
  • Frank Blackaby: First Use Against International Law, summary, (Apr 10, 1999). The full report is available here.
  • Bruno Tertrais, Nuclear Policies in Europe, Adelphi Paper 327 (press release only), (Mar 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
  • David S. Yost, The U.S. and Nuclear Deterrence in Europe, Adelphi Papers 326 (press release only), (Mar 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
  • United Kongdom House of Commons Defence Committee, The Future of NATO: The Washington Summit, (Mar 31, 1999). Note: only includes the nuclear excerpts. (PDF document).
    For a summary of the whole hearing produced by BASIC, go here. The BASIC summary is also available in a text-only format.
  • Summary Report of the seminar briefing “The 1999 NPT PrepCom: Towards the 2000 Review Conference, CESD, (Mar 24, 1999).
  • Dutch Foreign Minister Letter Explains Nuclear Policy to Parliament, (Mar 12, 1999).
  • Robin Collins, Politically Complex, Morally Necessary: Possibilities for NFU Advocacy by Canada?, (Mar 4, 1999).
  • Report of the Commission On Maintaining United States Nuclear Weapons Expertise, Report to the Congress and Secretary of Energy Pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Acts of 1997 and 1998, (March 1, 1999).
  • Nuclear Doctrine Remains Thorn in NATO’s Side. Commentary on nuclear debate by Stephen Young, (Feb 24, 1999).
  • Britain “Firmly Opposed” to No-First-Use but Willing to Discuss Other Nuclear Aspects. Report from Thomas Neve, (Feb 17, 1999).
  • Otfried Nassauer’s Briefing on German Nuclear Policy Issue, (Feb 8, 1999).
  • 1999 Posture Statement by General Henry H. Shelton, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Before the 106th Congress, House Armed Services Committee, United States House of Representatives, (Feb 2, 1999). For a text-only version, go here.
    This statement is also available in a excerpt version from the U.S. Mission to NATO either in a web-format or in a text-only format.
  • Russian Official Deplores New NATO Strategy Document, Mezhdunarodnaya Zhizn (Moscow), (Feb 1, 1999).
  • A Risk Reduction Strategy for NATO, BASIC Research Report 99.1, (Feb 1999). For a text-only version of the nuclear chapters only, gohere.
  • Text from “NATO at Fifty” Wilton Park Conference, January 1999. For a text-only version, go here.
  • Robert Bell’s Briefing on Defense and Arms Control, (Jan 21, 1999). For a text-only version, go here.

References From 1998

  • PPNN News Brief #44, 4th Quarter 1998 (December 1998). PDF document.
  • NATO General Secretary Responds to Question From BASIC Director Dan Plesch, (Dec 17, 1998).
  • High-Level Briefing Following NATO Meetings on December 17, 1998.
  • NATO Defense Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group Meeting, (Dec 17, 1998).
  • NATO Defense Ministers Atlantic Council Meeting, (Dec 17, 1998).
  • General Butler’s letter to NATO Defense Ministers, (Dec 12, 1998).
  • Canada and the Nuclear Challenge: Reducing the Political Value of Nuclear Weapons for the Twenty-First Century, Report of the Canadian Parlaiment’s Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (Dec 1998).
  • NATO Foreign Ministers Meeting, (Dec 8, 1998). For a text-only version, go here.
  • Dutch parliamentary Resolution on NATO and No-First-Use Policy, (Dec 3, 1998).
  • Martin Butcher,, Western European Options for Nuclear Risk Reduction, BASIC Nuclear Futures Report 98.5 (Dec. 1998).
  • U.S., German Defense Officials on NATO Nuclear Policy (Nov. 26, 1998).
  • Excerpts from Joint U.S.-German Press Briefing (Nov 24, 1998). For full text go here.
  • Excerpts from Secretary Cohen’s Asia Strategy Briefing (Nov 23, 1998). For full text go here.
  • Letter from President Clinton to the Congress On Weapons of Mass Destruction; Extends National Emergency Relating to These Weapons, (Nov 12, 1998). This is a text-only document.
  • National Security Strategy for a New Century, The White House, (Oct 1998). PDF document only.
  • Cathleen Fisher and Caroline Earle, China’s No-First-Use Policy, The Stimson Center, (Oct 1998). Go here for text-only version. This is a preface to the following Electronic Essays:
    • Liu Huaqiu, No-First-Use and China’s Security, The Stimson Center, Electronic Essay, (Oct 1998). Go here for text-only version.
    • Dingli Shen, China’s Negative Security Assurances, The Stimson Center, Electronic Essay, (Oct 1998). Go here for text-only version.
  • Martin Butcher, NATO Formulating New Strategic Concept, BASIC Reports #66, (Oct 23, 1998). For a text-only version, go here.
  • The Roth Report: NATO in the 21st Century (Oct 2, 1998).
  • U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen’s Prepared Talking Pointson the NATO Summit Agenda, prepared for his Remarks at the Informal Defense Ministerial Meeting Vilamoura, Portugal (Sep 25, 1998).
  • Norwegian Foreign Minister Vollebaek’s Response to German Call for NATO Nuclear Review, (Sep 1998).
  • PPNN News Brief #43, 3rd Quarter 1998 (September 1998). PDF format.
  • NATO Forces: Preparing For New Roles and Missions, North Atlantic Assembly (Sep 25, 1998).
  • Ambassador Thomas Graham, No First Use, an Explanation Paper from LAWS, (Jul 1998).
  • U.S. Nuclear Policy in the 21st Century: A Fresh Look at National Strategy and Requirements, Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University (July 1998).
  • Statements of Gen. George Lee Butler (USAF), Ret., before the House National Security Committee, on the Findings and Conclusions of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threats to the United States, (Jul 16, 1998). A text-only verison with Gen. Butler’s remarks is available here.
    To see the final report from the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threats to the United States dated July 15, 1998, go here.
  • Gwendolyn M. Hall,, A Post-Cold War Nuclear Strategy Model, Institute for National Security Studies, Occational Papers #22, U.S. Air Force Academy (July 1998). For PDF version go here.
  • Harald Müller and Makarim Wibisono, Approaches to Nuclear Disarmament: Two Views, PPNN Issue Review # 12 (April 1998). PDF format.
  • William M. Arkin and Hans M. Kristensen, “Dangerous Directions,”Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April 1998 [PDF-version];
  • Hans M. Kristensen, Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and US Nuclear Strategy, BASIC Nuclear Futures Report 98.2 (March 1998). PDF Format. For text summary go here.
    If the BASIC site is down, go here for an alternative posting.
  • PPNN News Brief #41, 1st Quarter 1998 (March 1998). PDF format.
    See also the chapter Security Assurances and Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones from the PPNN Briefing Book: The Evolution of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime, Volume I, Fourth Edition, 1998.
  • Brian Hall, Overkill Is Not Dead, The New York Times Magazine, (Mar 15, 1998).
  • Report of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, (Jan 1998). This documents is in a web page HTML format. For a PDF format, go here.

References From 1997

  • National Military Strategy of the United States of America, (1997). For a text-only version, go here.
  • Walter Slocombe, Is there still a role for nuclear deterrence?, NATO Review, No. 6, Vol. 45, Nov-Dec 1997, pp. 23-26.
  • Paula DeSutter, Proliferation, from Strategic Assessment 1997, National Defense University, Institute for Strategic Studies (1997).
  • DOD Counterproliferation Program Review Committee’s Annual Report To Congress, (1997).
  • Andrew J. Goodpaster, General, U.S. Army (Retired), Shaping the Nuclear Future: Toward a More Comprehensive Approach, Atlantic Council of the United States, Occational Papers, (Dec 1997). PDF document. If the link is dead, go here.
  • Bruce G. Blair,, Taking Nuclear Weapons off Hair-Trigger Alert, Scientific American (Nov 1997). If the page is too slow to load, go tohere for a text-only format.
  • Jeffrey A. Larsen, NATO Counterproliferation Policy: A Case Study in Alliance Politics, Institute for National Security Studies, Occational Papers #22, U.S. Air Force Academy (November 1997). For PDF version go here.
  • Harald Mueller and Katja Frank, A German View of Nuclear Postures, Committee on Nuclear Policy Brief Vol. 1, No. 15, The Stimson Center, (Oct 8, 1997).
  • Victor A. Utgoff, Nuclear Weapons and the Deterrence of Biological and Chemical Warfare, The Stimson Center, Occational Paper No. 36, (Oct 1997). PDF version only.
  • PPNN News Brief #39, 3rd Quarter 1997 (October 1997). PDF document.
  • Hans M. Kristensen, Targets of Opportunity: How nuclear planners found new targets for old weapons, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Sep 1997).
  • Natural Resources Defense Council, End Run: The U.S. Government’s Plan for Designing Nuclear Weapons and Simulating Nuclear Explosions under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, August 1997.
  • Paul E. Gallis, NATO: Article V and Collective Defense, Congressional Research Service, Report No. 97-717 F, (Jul 17, 1997). A text-only version is available here.
  • The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy, National Academy of Sciences (1997). For a brief summary, see the Committee on Nuclear Policy Brief. A full frame-version came be found here.
    To see the Center for Security Policy’s criticism of the report go here.
  • PPNN News Brief #38, 2nd Quarter 1997 (June 1997). PDF document.
  • Alexei Arbatov, Russian Militarty Doctrine and Strategic Nuclear Forces to the Year 2000 and Beyond, paper prepared for the conference Russian Defense Policy Towards the Year 2000, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, (Mar 26-27, 1997).
    For a text-only version, go here.
  • Prepared statement by Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, Franklin C. Miller, on Threat Reduction and Counterproliferation Policy, Before the Strategic Forces Subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee, (Mar 5, 1997). This is text-only version.
  • Gregory L. Schulte, Dispelling Myths About NATO’s Nuclear Posture, USIA (Feb 20, 1997). This is a text-only document. For a link to web version, go here.

References From 1996

  • William C. Potter, Next Steps in Nuclear Disarmament: The Challenge of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, Monterey Institute for International Studies, California (Dec 1996).
  • Aspen Strategy Group Recommendations to Reduce Nuclear Proliferation Threat, Oct 3, 1996).
  • George Bunn and Roland Timerbaev, Security Assurances to Non-Nuclear-Weapon States: Possible Options for Change,, PPNN Issue Review #7 (September 1996). PDF format.
  • U.S. Doctrine for Joint Theater Nuclear Operations, JP 3-12.1, (Feb 9, 1996). PDF document only.
  • PPNN News Briefs from 1996 and earlier.

References From 1995

  • Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence, internal U.S. Strategic Command document (1995). For PDF version go here.
  • U.S. Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations (JP 3-12), (Dec 15, 1995). PDF-only document.
  • China: Arms Control and Disarmament, Excerpts from the official Chinese position on nuclear weapons disarmament, from a “White Paper” issued November 1995 by the Information Office of the People’s Republic of China.
  • William T. Johnson, NATO Strategy in the 1990s: Reaping the Peace Dividend or the Whirlwind?, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, (May 25, 1995). PDF document only.

References From 1994 and Earlier

  • George Bunn and Roland M. Timerbaev, Security Assurances to Non-Nuclear Weapon States, The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1993, Volume 1 – Number 1, Monterey Institute of International Studies, California.
  • General John R. Galvin, From Immediate Defence Towards Long-Term Stability, NATO Review, Vol. 39, No. 6, December 1991, pp. 14-18. For a text-only version, go here.
  • Michael Legge, The Making of NATO’s New Strategy, NATO Review, Vol. 39, No. 6, December 1991, pp. 9-14. For a text-only version, go here.
  • Manfred Wörner, NATO Transformed: The Significance of the Rome Summit, NATO Review, Vol. 39, No. 6, December 1991, pp. 3-8. For a text-only version, go here.
  • NATO’s Strategic Concept, as agreed by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Rome on 7th-8th November 1991. For a text-only version, go here.
  • NATO Ministerial Communiques 1949-1998.
  • U.N. General Assembly Resolutions 1981-1998.
  • The World Court Project of Physicians for Global Survival (Canada).

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