Intelligence Agencies and Third World Militarization: A Case Study of Indonesia, 1966-1989

Intelligence Agencies and Third World Militarization: A Case Study of Indonesia, 1966-1989

Table of Contents

Opening materials

  • Abstract
  • Detailed Table of Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • Glossary

Part I Theoretical overview

1 Introduction

  • Prologue: Managing the “still unmastered past”
  • The Indonesian intelligence state
  • Militarisation, surveillance and terror in modern social theory
  • The political economy of rentier-militarist state formation
  • Outline of the thesis
  • Note: research on intelligence

2 Militarization: global, regional and national

  • The effects of militarization
  • Militarization as a global phenomenon
  • Difficulties with the classical notion of militarism
  • “Militarism” and “militarization”
  • Contemporary forms of militarisation: national, extended or imperial, and indirect
  • Dimensions of national militarization

 3 Surveillance and the totalitarian ambition

  • Foucault and Giddens on surveillance
  • Surveillance and the model of totalitarian rule
  • Limitations of Giddens’ model
    • Privileging the European model
    • Dismissing the Japanese model
    • Modelling the path to totalitarian rule
    • The place of world-orders
  • The Japanese model of emperor-system fascism
    • Ruling bloc
    • Passive mass-mobilization
    • Domestic surveillance and limited terror
    • Extreme terror in the periphery
    • Conclusion: the relevance of the Japanese model

 4 Intelligence and the rationalization of domination

  • Intelligence agencies
    • The functions of domestic intelligence agencies: surveillance, intervention, ideology and steering
    • The isomorphic structure of national intelligence agencies
  • Causes of isomorphic intelligence and security complexes
    • Sources of variation
  • The West German model
  • The rationalisation of domination

 5 The empire of pain: terror as a form of rule

  • Varieties of modern terror
  • Inducements to torture
  • Crimen exceptum and the return of torture
  • Terror and legitimacy
  • Tempting the state: incommunicado detention
  • The uncontrolled state
  • The cultural construction of terror
  • The corrosion of solidarity
  • Semantic delirium
  • Interruption: talking about torture
  • Torture and language
  • Rituals of state
  • Living in the space of death
  • The progress of the state: scientizing torture
  • Terror and memory

Part II Indonesia: militarization, intelligence and terror

 6 Oil, IGGI and US hegemony: the global pre-conditions for Indonesian rentier-militarisation

  • Questions of method
  • External pre-conditions of the Indonesian rentier-militarist state
  • The structure of global power and peripheral state possibilities
  • Global sources of legitimacy for a fortuitous statism
  • The South Korean response: mercantilist militarism
  • Conclusion: transformations of the rentier-state and the mercantilist state

 7 The hardening shell – Indonesian military revenues and force structures

  • Military revenues and expenditures:
    • Domestic budgets
    • Pertamina and other state enterprises
    • Military enterprises
    • Levels of spending
    • Foreign military aid
  • Force structure: plans, personnel and weapons systems
    • The transformation:
      • Force structure, 1968
      • Force structures 1968-1974
      • Renstra I and the Timor expansion, 1974/75 – 1978/79
      • Renstra II, 1978/79 – 1983/84
      • Renstra III and the Moerdani Years, 1984/85 – 1988/89
    • Force structure, 1987

 8 The structure of the Indonesian intelligence apparatus: Part I – military organisations

  • Kopkamtib
    • Legal status
    • Aims and functions
    • Powers and scope
    • Structure and procedures
    • KOPKAMTIB at war: Irian Jaya and East Timor
    • Controlling labour: structures
    • Operasi Tertib – Operation Order
  • After Kopkamtib: Bakorstanas
  • Strategic Intelligence Agency [Bais ABRI]
    • Origins
    • Structure
    • Foreign activities
    • Political activities
  • Army Intelligence: from Aspam to Babinsa

 9 The structure of the Indonesian intelligence apparatus: Part II – civilian organisations

  • State Intelligence Coordinating Board [Bakin]:
    • History
    • Structure and personnel
    • Political role
  • Opsus
    • A private intelligence empire?
    • Opsus personnel: thugs, spooks and “political technocrats”
    • Opsus financial base
  • National Police Intelligence
  • Department of Home Affairs, Directorate-General of Social and Political Affairs
  • Attorney-General’s Department, Intelligence Affairs
  • State Crytography Institute

10 Intelligence coordination and the coherence of the state

  • Local intelligence coordination
  • Central intelligence coordination
  • Organizational rivalries

11 Theory and practice in intelligence and control operations: (1) Terror

  • The SESKOAD textbook models:
    • Intelligence operations
    • Territorial operations
    • Social and political operations
    • Threat levels and the framework of intervention: Regional Security Management
  • Intelligence and security operations in practice:
    • Surveillance and terror in East Timor intelligence and security operations
    • Irian Jaya intelligence and security operations
    • Extra-judicial killings of alleged criminals, 1983-84
    • Provocation and terror against students, Timorese and Muslims

12 Theory and practice in intelligence and control operations: (2) surveillance

  • Controlling labour
    • First corporatist attempts       
    • Pancasila industrial relations
    • Organisational tightening
    • Intelligence and intervention
  • Sifting the dust of history: mass surveillance techniques:
    • East Timor: surveillance in war
    • Penetrating labour
    • Social science against Islam
    • Communists: fantasies of science

Part III Conclusion

13 Conclusion

  • Indonesia: a totalitarian ambition in a rentier militarist state
  • Intelligence regimes
  • The end of rentier-militarisation?
  • Intelligence and society
  • The military and modernity, again


  1. Indonesian intelligence and security figures, 1966-1989: biographical notes
  2. Intelligence career paths
  3. Notes on the history of Indonesian intelligence organizations, 1945-1965
  4. Seskoad recommended model evaluation of territorial aims
  5. Seskoad recommended model of territorial potential analysis
  6. Seskoad recommended model of territorial development analysis
  7. Kopkamtib questionnaire for oil industry workers
  8. Kopkamtib questionnaire for factory workers
  9. Indonesian military budget, 1978: detailed breakdown
  10. Assistants for Intelligence to the Central Army Command, Department of Defence and Security Joint Command or ABRI Chief of the General Staff, 1965 -1985
  11. First Assistant (Intelligence/Security) to the Army Chief of Staff, 1967-1985   
  12. The Armed Forces Leadership and Social Communication