NAPSNet Daily Report 19 October, 1999

Recommended Citation

"NAPSNet Daily Report 19 October, 1999", NAPSNet Daily Report, October 19, 1999,


I. United States

II. Republic of Korea

III. Russian Federation

I. United States

1. US-DPRK Economic Relations

The Associated Press (Christopher Torchia, “US GROUP SEEKS NKOREA TRADE MISSION,” Seoul, 10/19/99) and Reuters (“US BUSINESS GROUP SEES N.KOREA TRADE MISSION SOON,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that the American Chamber of Commerce in the ROK said on Tuesday that it expected to send a trade mission to the DPRK in the second half of November. Chamber spokesman Steve Bowen said that more than 90 businessmen had applied to join the mission, but only 10 will be selected with preference given to those involved in construction, infrastructure development, and consumer products. Bowen said that the chamber has officially asked for visas through the DPRK mission at the UN and has made “informal” contacts as well. He stated, “We’re confident we’ll get the approval to go ahead, but as yet nothing has been firmly approved.” He added, “As far as we are aware, this is the first foreign trade mission of this kind to North Korea.” The mission would likely visit the UN Development Program-sponsored Tumen River Area Development region and the Rajin-Sonbong free trade zone. The chamber said that prospective US companies have long-term investment plans for the DPRK and want to find projects that coincide with the DPRK’s development strategy. Jeffrey Jones, the chamber president, stated, “There are no great expectations for huge profits in the beginning.”

2. ROK-DPRK Relations

Reuters (Bill Tarrant, “S.KOREA SAYS TIES WITH NORTH IMPROVING,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said Tuesday that his sunshine policy is helping to improve relations with the DPRK. Kim stated, “Although there have been ups and downs, as a result of such efforts, I think the South-North Korea relationship and the situation on the Korean peninsula are currently moving toward peace and cooperation.” He added, “(The government) will keep trying to resume South-North Korean government talks so that issues of mutual interest, such as the separated family issue, can be discussed and resolved.” Kim said, “Inter-Korea economic cooperation can flourish based on the principle of separating politics from economy.” He also said that the government hoped to start building two light-water nuclear reactors in the DPRK before the end of the year.

The Washington Times (Wesley Pruden, “KIM SEES PROGRESS IN NORTH KOREA,” Seoul, 10/19/99, 1) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said that he sees evidence that the DPRK is changing for the better. Kim stated, “pressure from the world community [is] contributing to the deterrence of their attempt for a military conflict.” He added, “Unless we take the option of war I think we have to follow the Perry Report.” He argued, “Right now, North Korea is trying to get in contact with the United States and Japan, and especially the United States. That is their posture. I think that is a sign they are changing.” He stated, “We have great confidence in the missile-defense project of the United States.” He noted, “We have an agreement with the United States that we will develop and manufacture missiles ranging 300 kilometers, and we are asking that we have the right to develop and test missiles ranging 500 kilometers, which would cover the border with China, and I think this will give the message to North Korea that our missiles can counter their missiles.” Kim said, “There are three things that we can give to North Korea. The first is a guarantee, or an assurance, of their security. The second is to support them for the revitalization of their economy. And the third is to support them so they can work as contributing members of the world community.” He noted, “They are refusing to have a dialogue with our country. However, right now I think they are re-evaluating that.” He added, “If they do not accept the suggestions made through the Perry Report, then I can tell you there are two things we will not do. One is, going to war, and the second is to cut out any channel of dialogue. However, through the manipulation of economic support, or other measures, they will have to sustain substantial pain and this will be done through the alliances and cooperation of the United States, South Korea and Japan.” He said that persuading the DPRK to give up its development of long-range missiles is crucial as otherwise “it would give the cause for rearmament [of Japan], and they might go for the nuclear [option], and that will hurt greatly the security of Northeast Asia as well as of the United States.” [Ed. note: This article was one of the top stories in the US Defense Department’s Early Bird news service for October 19.]

3. Monitoring of DPRK Food Aid

The Wall Street Journal (“U.S. SAYS RELIEF IN NORTH KOREA SUFFERS FROM POOR OVERSIGHT,” Washington, 10/19/99) reported that an unnamed US State Department spokesman said Monday that, although the US has not found any significant evidence that food aid to the DPRK is being diverted, it is calling for increased access by international monitors to distribution sites. The spokesman said that obtaining assurances that the food reaches its intended recipients has been an “ongoing process” since the program started. He added, “There is always room for improvement.” By June 2000 the World Food Program (WFP) will have delivered to the DPRK a total of 1.66 million tons of food valued at US$856 million over a five-year period, according to a WFP submission to the US General Accounting Office.

4. Korean War Massacre

The Washington Times (David W. Jones, “KOREAN WAR COMPENSATION IS DISCUSSED,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said that compensation must be paid to the victims if an investigation confirms reports that US soldiers killed hundreds of civilians in the Korean War. Kim added, however, that no one should forget that US soldiers came to the ROK in 1950 to help save it from a communist invasion. He stated, “I think we should not have any confusion between the fact-finding of this very unfortunate incident with the fact, and the meaning, of the United States’ participation in the Korean War.” Kim stated, “Because of that, we are enjoying our security, and also prosperity. So when the U.N. made a resolution and asked us to send troops to East Timor, we took this as a responsibility that we must take.” [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Defense Department’s Early Bird news service for October 19.]

5. ROK-Vietnam Military Relations

The Associated Press (“SKOREA, VIETNAM AGREE TO BOOST TIES,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that Vice Vietnamese Defense Minister Tran Hanh arrived in Seoul on Monday for a five-day visit, the highest-ranking Vietnamese defense official to visit the ROK since the nations established diplomatic ties in 1992. Officials at the ROK Defense Ministry said that, in talks Tuesday with his ROK counterpart, Park Yong-ok, Hanh suggested that three ROK warships travel to Ho Chi Minh City on November 5-8, and Park accepted the invitation. Hanh later met ROK Defense Minister Cho Sung-tae. He was scheduled to end his ROK visit Friday after inspecting a military unit and a weapons plant.

6. PRC Policy toward Taiwan

South China Morning Post (Willy Wo-Lap Lam, “PLA HAWKS URGE HARD LINE ON TAIWAN,” 10/19/99) reported that an unnamed military source said Monday that a unit in the PRC’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) had recently passed an instruction on “maintaining the forces’ high fighting spirit” following the earthquake in Taiwan. The source said that elements in the army did not want to see preparations for the possible use of military force against Taiwan put off by the disaster. The source said that PLA generals had devoted a lot of resources to studying the feasibility of applying the “Kosovo model” to Taiwan. Diplomatic analysts in Beijing said that shortly after the earthquake, PRC President Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji, and Vice-Premier Qian Qichen said that the focus should be shifted to sending condolences to the Taiwan people. However, senior officers led by Central Military Commission vice-chairman General Zhang Wannian and Chief of Staff General Fu Quanyou continued preparations for a “military solution.” [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Defense Department’s Early Bird news service for October 19.]

7. Crash of Taiwanese Fighter

The Associated Press (“TAIWAN DETAINS CHINESE TRAWLER,” Taipei, 10/19/99) reported that Taiwan on Tuesday detained a PRC fishing trawler and its crew who were suspected of trying to use nets to recover parts of a Taiwanese Mirage 2000-5 jet fighter that crashed late last week. The vessel was captured five miles from the northwest port of Yenshui, and a detailed map of Taiwanese coastal waters was found on board. Taiwan Defense Ministry spokesman Kung Fan-Ding said that on Tuesday, Taiwanese authorities also chased away two PRC fishing boats close to where the fighter crashed on Friday.

8. Earthquake Aid for Taiwan

The Associated Press (Christopher Bodeen, “DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS IN TAIWAN,” Taipei, 10/19/99) reported that Doctors Without Borders said Tuesday that a small team of doctors arrived in Taiwan Monday to help treat psychological problems among victims of last month’s earthquake. Dominique Leguillier, chief of East Asian operations, said that the group did not clear the visit with the PRC beforehand. Leguillier stated, “In this kind of situation, countries take advantage of each other for good or for bad.” He added that he did not think that the Taiwan mission would cause difficulties for the organization’s work in the PRC.

9. Bombing of PRC Embassy

The Associated Press (“U.S., CHINA TO DISCUSS COMPENSATION,” Beijing, 10/19/99) reported that an anonymous source said that David Andrews, a US State Department legal adviser, was due to arrive in Beijing on Tuesday for meetings with officials from the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs on compensation for NATO’s bombing of the PRC Embassy in Yugoslavia. The source said that Andrews’ trip, which is expected to end Friday, comes ahead of an expected visit next week by US Undersecretary of State Thomas Pickering.

10. Pakistan Troop Pullback

Reuters (“INDIA SHRUGS OFF PAKISTAN TROOP PULLBACK,” New Delhi, 10/18/99) reported that Indian Foreign Ministry spokesman Raminder Singh Jassal on Monday dismissed the significance of Pakistan’s move to withdraw troops from its border with India. Jassal stated, “The withdrawal is intended to be from the international border where Pakistani troops massed during the Kargil operations. All that is going to happen is that Pakistani troops from these locations will now go back to their barracks.” He added, “It is imperative that Pakistan should cease its sponsorship of cross-border terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere in India. Pakistan has pursued the sponsorship of terrorism in India as a matter of state policy and as yet we see no signs that this is abating.” Indian army chief General Ved Prakash Malik stated, “We should not read too much into this Pakistani announcement.” He added, “We shall assess the situation and our deployment on the basis of the overall security situation along the international border as well as the line of control … overall we will assess the situation.”

11. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

The Associated Press (“RUSSIA DENIES ARMS DEAL WITH U.S.,” Moscow, 10/19/99) reported that the Russian Foreign Ministry on Tuesday denied reports that the US offered to complete a Russian radar station in return for amending the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty. Ministry spokesman Anatoly Kobzev stated, “As concerns the Russian Foreign Ministry, which is conducting consultations with the American side on issues of strategic stability, including the issues of the anti-missile defense and strategic arms reductions, and coordinating the activity of Russian agencies along these lines, there are not any grounds for the reports that have been published by American newspapers.”

12. Ratification of CTBT

Reuters (Sonali Desai, “U.S. OFFICIAL SAYS NO EXCUSE FOR NUKE TESTS,” Singapore, 10/19/99) reported that Stanley Roth, US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, said Tuesday that the failure of the US Senate to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty should not be used as an excuse for any country to resume nuclear testing. Roth stated, “The United States has made it very clear that we will not resume testing despite the fact that the treaty was not ratified. And our hope is that other countries will follow the same example.” He added, “There have been some encouraging public statements to this effect by China and India, and we hope that other countries will join them.”

II. Republic of Korea

1. DPRK on Missile Development

The Korea Times (“N.KOREA JUSTIFIES MISSILE DEVELOPMENT AS SELF-DEFENSE,” Seoul, 10/18/99) reported that the DPRK on Sunday pointed to the planned joint military exercises of US and ROK troops as a motive for developing missiles for self-defense. “Our missile development is self-defense measures to protect ourselves from continued menace of the United States and belongs to our sovereignty,” said a commentary on Rodong Sinmun, monitored by Radio Press in Tokyo. “The United States also is making a joint military exercise called ‘Foal Eagle’ and also strengthening its military and war-training instigation in the Korean peninsula and its neighboring areas,” the DPRK’s commentary said. The DPRK accused the US of merely making gestures “on the surface,” and warned that a breakout of war was “merely a matter of time.” “A large invading military force of United States, Japan and South Korea is aiming our republic by assembling it in the Korean peninsula and its neighboring areas,” it said.

2. ROK Policy toward DPRK

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, “SEOUL TO SHIFT FOCUS OF NORTH KOREA POLICY FROM INTER-KOREAN TALKS TO ECONOMIC TIES,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that ROK officials said that in a bid to further substantiate inter-Korean ties, the ROK government will shift its focus in dealing with the DPRK to encouraging private economic cooperation, while sharply expanding humanitarian aid for the DPRK. Breaking away from its previous policy of pursuing various political talks between the two Koreas, the ROK will now put priority on supporting exchanges between civic groups and private businesses, which could later lead to improvement in governmental ties, said a senior Unification Ministry official, speaking on condition of anonymity. Now that a more favorable environment has been created thanks to the progress in the Hyundai Group’s business projects in the DPRK, the ROK government will concentrate its efforts more on nurturing such economic ties than political talks, he said. “Talks between Hyundai and its North Korean counterpart are no less direct and important than the talks between South and North Korean authorities,” he noted. The official reiterated the ROK’s optimism that an onrush of ROK businesses to the DPRK would cause the DPRK to be more dependent on the ROK, eventually making governmental talks inevitable.

3. ROK on DPRK escapees

The Korea Times (Son Key-young, “SEOUL LACKS PRACTICAL MEANS TO ACCEPT N.KOREAN DEFECTORS,” Seoul, 10/18/99) reported that ROK Unification Minister Lim Dong-won’s statement that the ROK would accept all DPRK refugees wishing to defect to the ROK seen is a symbolic step for the ROK government, which has been under fire for failing to pay due attention to the humanitarian issue. The article said that Lim’s declaration simply reflects the spirit of the Constitution under which DPRK citizens are entitled to the same privileges enjoyed by ROK citizens. An unnamed senior Unification Ministry official on Monday requested reporters to interpret the minister’s remarks as referring to a “small group of North Koreans who had wrapped up all the necessary procedures for entry into South Korea with the nation’s overseas embassies.” In fact, there is no way out for DPRK citizens to travel to the ROK from the PRC, where the largest number of DPRK refugees are staying illegally. Even if a DPRK escapee applies for political asylum at the ROK Embassy in Beijing and other missions in the PRC, they have no means to take steps to facilitate their defection because the PRC government has refused to allow it. “During his remarks at the parliamentary inspection, Minister Lim also acknowledged the fact that not all North Korean asylum seekers could be brought to South Korea because of difficulties in negotiations with their host countries,” the official said. “Therefore, what we can do this stage is to step up diplomatic activities reflecting the rising pressure from public opinion at home and abroad on North Korean refugees,” he added. However, the official stressed the government needs to engage in “silent diplomacy” because there is the possibility that the DPRK will react hysterically to the ROK’s actions, which will also hamper cooperation between the neighboring countries. The official said that there were three categories of DPRK refugees in the PRC: the first group is made up of simple trespassers who stayed only up to 10 days in search of food; the second group consists of those who stay for several months in their PRC relatives’ homes, engaging in some trivial work; and the third group is made up of those who are seeking to get to the ROK because they left the DPRK out of disenchantment with the DPRK system or political crackdowns. However, the official made it clear that the ROK government’s “progressive” action toward DPRK refugees would result in an increase of their defection to the ROK. “South Korean overseas missions are expected to exert stepped-up efforts to help them achieve their dreams,” he said.

4. ROK-DPRK Religious Forum

The Korea Herald (“SOUTH, NORTH KOREAN RELIGIOUS LEADERS TO HOLD TALKS IN AMMAN,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that a panel discussion on issues concerning the Korean Peninsula and a meeting of religious leaders from both Koreas will be arranged at the World Conference on Religion and Peace in Amman, Jordan, November 24- 29. An official at the ROK’s Korean Conference on Religion and Peace (KCRP) said on Monday, “A combined 22 religious leaders from South and North Korea will attend the world conference in Amman, such as the Reverend Kang Won-yong, Cardinal Chang Eung-chol, head of the Seoul Diocese, and Jang Jae-on, chairman of the (DPRK) Korean Religion Council.” Representatives from the two Koreas will deliver speeches under the title of “Roles of Believers for Reconciliation on the Korean Peninsula,” at the conference. Thereafter, international delegates will hold a panel discussion on the matter. Unofficial inter-Korean talks will also be held, another source with the conference said. “At a recent meeting in Tokyo with Dr. William Vendley, secretary-general of the world congress, I consulted on the issue with him and he promised to inform North Korea of the South’s intention,” said Park Kwang-soo, deputy secretary- general of the KCRP.

5. ROK Participation in East Timor Peacekeeping

The Korea Herald (“CARGO SHIP FOR S. KOREAN PEACEKEEPERS ARRIVES IN TIMOR,” Seoul, 10/19/99) reported that the ROK Defense Ministry said on Monday that the advance team of the ROK peacekeepers that arrived in Los Palos in East Timor on Saturday have been put to work unloading weapons and logistics supplies from a cargo ship docked in the small port of Com. The cargo ship, which left Pusan October 6, arrived in Com, some 20km northeast of Los Palos, on Sunday. The ROK soldiers carried the loads in trucks to their headquarters in Los Palos, Lautem province. Residents in Lautem welcomed the ROK troops, and refugees hiding in the mountains are beginning to return to their former residents destroyed or burnt down by pro-Jakarta militia, Defense Ministry officials in Seoul said. The 419-soldier ROK force will use a compound in Los Palos, formerly used by Indonesian troops, as its headquarters.

III. Russian Federation

1. DPRK Arms Imports

Nezavisimaia gazeta (“DPRK BUYS ARMS,” Moscow, 6, 9/29/99) reported that, according to the ROK Defense Minister’s report to the parliament, since 1995 the DPRK has imported US$156 million worth of arms. The RF, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, as well as the PRC are its main partners. This year alone the DPRK spent US$14 million on 40 MiG fighters and 8 helicopters from Kazakhstan and the RF. In 1998, the DPRK bought US$2.78 million worth of explosives and tank engines from the PRC, US$2.6 million worth of military equipment and AA systems from Kazakhstan, US$3.15 million worth of tank spare parts and accumulators from Slovakia, and US$43 million worth of helicopters and trucks in the RF.

Nezavisimaia gazeta’s Aleksandr Kuranov (“WHO WAS SELLING RUSSIAN MIGS VIA CZECHIA AND SLOVAKIA,” Moscow, 6, 10/16/99) reported that in Prague, a report prepared by Czech Security and Information Service was partially made public, concerning illegal activities of “Agroplast” company from the small Czech town of Liberets. It was involved in a failed attempt to transport six disassembled Russian-made MiG-21 planes by air from Kazakhstan via Azerbaijan presumably to Slovakia, but in fact to the DPRK or maybe to Yugoslavia. “Agroplast” has been accused also by Radio Free Europe of illegally delivering arms from various post-Soviet states to the Third World nations. “Agroplast” is 99 percent owned by “Nordic Line” which is registered in Prague and belongs to four persons in Saint Petersburg. It used to maintain close contacts with “Amblekot” company in Vienna headed by a certain Chong Ho-rhee of Korean descent. Altogether, according to the Czech counterintelligence, “Agroplast” served for six years as a middle-man in deliveries of arms from the RF and other post-Soviet countries to Iran, the DPRK, Libya, Ecuador and other nations. The “Agroplast” operations were “directed by somebody in Russia,” a confidential source in Czech government said.

2. PRC Embassy Bombing

Izvestia (Moscow, 10/99) reported that on the eve of PRC Chairman Jiang Zemin’s official visit to London, the Observer published results of a special investigation concluding that the NATO bombing of the PRC Embassy in Belgrade “was not a mistake,” but a deliberate action. Allegedly after President Milosevic’s residence was destroyed, the PRC Embassy hosted Serbian radio equipment that became the main means of communications between Serbian military headquarters and Serbian army units. For those services the PRC hoped to get from Serbia the secret technologies of an F-117 stealth aircraft shot down at the initial stage of the NATO operation. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright called the Observer’s allegations nonsense and stressed that the bombing was a mistake, but added there was information that the PRC Embassy did carry some reconnaissance activities. British Foreign Minister Robin Cook called the allegations “a wild story.”

Nezavisimaia gazeta’s Dmitry Kosyrev (“CHINESE EMBASSY BOMBING NOT A MISTAKE?,” Moscow, 6, 10/19/99) reported that the allegations by the Observer came as a potential benefit for PRC Chairman Jiang Zemin, who arrived in London on an official visit. Now he can choose whether to accept NATO official explanations for the PRC Embassy bombing in Belgrade or to put forth some additional demands.

3. RF-PRC-US Relations

Zavtra’s Boris Zanegin (“LEFT MARCH,” Moscow, 5, October 1999, #40(305) published a half-page article dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the PRC, with subtitles: “Superpower of the Third Millennium,” “China and America” and “Whither Russia?.” US Central Intelligence Agency and Word Bank data is quoted as saying that by 2020 the PRC will have the world’s largest GNP, equal to US$20 trillion, with the US having just US$13.47 trillion by that time. Due to its economic success and prudent policies, “China is becoming a factor limiting aggressive trends that have been growing in the USA and the West in general.” The article stated, “NATO aggression in the Balkans was perceived in the PRC, where on its national ethnic periphery the problems of separatism exist similar to Yugoslavia, as a warning of a possibility of use of force in any part of the world in favor of separatists and against legitimate governments.” Protest actions on the part of the PRC followed the bombing of the PRC Embassy in Belgrade, and then “the meeting of B.N.Yeltsin and Jiang Zemin within the Shanghai group framework (Bishkek, August 1999) showed China’s concern about the coming of pro-American forces up to the PRC borders and confirmed Beijing’s interest in political and military technical cooperation with Russia.” As for the RF, the new situation it found itself in increases the role of its Far Eastern territories, and “it is logical to assume that as time goes by the Russian strategy will have to pay the main attention to the Pacific direction.” The RF will have to deal with the PRC in the environment of “inevitable loss of illusions concerning the West and a very high probability of development of controversies with the USA…. Meanwhile Russia’s foreign policy is of a controversial nature…. While admitting the unlawfulness of the present US foreign policy … Russia nevertheless develops and safeguards Russian-American relations and fills those with such content that is at odds with Russian-Chinese officially registered agreements…. Some diplomatic actions of Moscow clumsily touch on vulnerable points of military-political situation on China’s borders. The latest example are the talks about a wider military cooperation including arms deliveries … with the South Korean government, which together with the USA is at legally unfinished war with the DPRK, the latter in its turn tied by allied relations with the PRC.” As for the US, “Washington looks for geopolitical levers to contain Chinese Communism and obviously plans to put the main burden of that task on Russia.”

4. US-PRC Post-WW2 Espionage

Nezavisimoye voyennoye obozreniye’s Vladimir Malevany and Yury Totrov (“VICTORY OF THE DRAGON OVER THE TIGER,” Moscow, 7, 10/1- 7/99 #38(161)) published a half-page article about the US intelligence service’s failure to infiltrate the Communist Party of China in the 1940s. The subtitles are: “Far East Is the Target,” “Dixie Mission,” “New Objects for Infiltration,” “Donovan’s ‘Nestlings’,” “US Network Heads and Intelligence Officers,” “In the ‘Net’ of the Communist Party,” and “CIA: 25 Years of Waiting.”

5. Japan’s Nuclear Facilities Safety

Nezavisimaia gazeta (“AN INCIDENT AT A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN JAPAN,” Moscow, 6, 10/9/99) reported that “yet another radiation exhaust was registered in Japan.” A Tokyo Electric Power Company representative reported that a leak occurred from two containers with low-enriched nuclear waste. No serious danger is expected

6. RF Draft Military Doctrine

Nezavisimaia gazeta’s Andrey Korbut (“DRAFT MILITARY DOCTRINE PARTIALLY SUBSTITUTES THE CONSTITUTION,” Moscow, 3, 10/13/99) commented on the RF draft military doctrine that was formally approved by RF Defense Ministry Collegium on September 29, to be discussed at an RF Security Council session this November. The new document says that “a number of potential external and internal dangers, including large-scale ones, to the military security of the Russian Federation and its allies remain and are becoming stronger in a number of directions.” The new document does not directly mention NATO, but the description therein of external threats, including disrespect to RF interests, build-up of troops leading to a breach of balance of power, and “expansion of military blocks and alliances” makes it recognizable. Nezavisimaia gazeta’s author criticized the draft for duplicating the RF Constitution in listing the functions of RF highest officials in the field of security. Moreover, the draft says that “the President heads the activities to ensure military security of the RF” and the Government “directs those activities,” while the Constitution stipulates that the Government “carry out measures to ensure defense of the country” and can direct those activities on the basis of powers defined by laws and Presidential decrees. “Altogether it is very strange that the document was drafted by not by politicians, but by the military,” the author concluded.

7. RF-US Arms Trade

Nezavisimoye voyennoye obozreniye (“RUSSIAN MISSILES FOR PENTAGON,” Moscow, 1, 10/1-7/99 #38(161)) reported that Boeing of the USA and Rosvo’oruzheniye of the RF signed a contract to buy 100 supersonic anti-ship H- 31 missiles made in the RF. Later Boeing and the US Navy are expected to sign a contract to create supersonic unmanned MA-31 targets on the basis of RF-made missiles. By now Boeing has already bought 13 H-31A produced by RF state-owned “Zvezda-Strela” sciencific-production center in Korolyov in the Moscow region. Four missile- based targets have already been tested at US naval test-site in China Lake.

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Asian Institute,
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Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Kim Hee-sun:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Leanne Paton:
Clayton, Australia


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