NAPSNet Daily Report 15 April, 1999

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"NAPSNet Daily Report 15 April, 1999", NAPSNet Daily Report, April 15, 1999,


I. United States

II. Republic of Korea

III. Japan

I. United States

1. Kim Il-sung’s Birthday Celebrations

The Associated Press (“N. KOREA MARKS LATE KIM’S BIRTHDAY,” Seoul, 04/15/99) reported that the DPRK on Thursday celebrated Kim Il-sung’s birthday. DPRK Prime Minister Hong Sung-nam said in a memorial speech, “We should hold the president in high esteem as the eternal leader of our party and people and as the sun of juche.” Hong urged DPRK citizens to carry on Kim’s revolutionary cause by being loyal to his son. State-run media said that the 87th anniversary of Kim’s birth was celebrated with memorial services, art performances, athletic contests, oratorical contests, and loyalty oath-takings. It said that singers, dancers and other art troupes from over 30 countries, including Russia, the PRC, and Canada, took part in a three-day festival. ROK officials said that the general mood for this year’s birthday celebrations was subdued because of the DPRK’s economic crisis.

2. DPRK Y2K Bug

Reuters (Yoo Choon-sik, “IS SECRETIVE NORTH KOREA Y2K COMPLIANT?” Seoul, 04/14/99) reported that an unnamed spokesman for US Forces-Korea said that the US has discussed the “Y2K” computer bug at regular meetings with DPRK officials at Panmunjom. The ROK Defense Ministry has asked Russia for help in ensuring that DPRK weapons systems are free of the bug, as the Soviet Union was formerly the DPRK’s main supplier of weaponry. An anonymous ROK Defense Ministry official stated, “Taking into account the result of (the) investigation into our weapon systems we don’t think there will be a serious situation of an emergency case happening. We are in close contact with Russia on the issue and Russia has also said publicly that there was no computer bug problem with weapons in North Korea.” However, the DPRK’s Korean Central News Agency said, “The (North) Korean People’s Army is equipped with the indigenously produced modern means of attack and defense and Korean-style command and control system.” Shin Young-soo, the ROK government’s Y2K Task Force chief, stated, “As far as I know, there will be no such problem at all.” Kang Jung-whan, who heads a preparatory committee for a council of nongovernmental organizations, argued, “Everybody in the government remains tight-lipped on the Y2K problem in the defense sector. This really is a source of worries.” John Koskinen, chair of US President Bill Clinton’s Council on Year 2000 Conversion, said on April 2, “The issue to deal with is panic. The issue to deal with is over-reaction … that’s where the risks are.” Jee Man-won, a military analyst in Seoul, stated, “I don’t see any practical problem. Throughout the process of firing missiles, there is no process linked to computer’s interpretation of time elements.”

3. ROK Plane Crash

The Associated Press (“SEVEN DIE AS PLANE CRASHES IN CHINA,” Shanghai, 04/15/99) reported that a Korean Air cargo plane crashed and exploded in a migrant worker community six miles southwest of Hongqiao airport in Shanghai. At a news conference in Seoul, Korean Air Vice President Shim E-taek said that five people were killed and the fate of the three crewmembers was unknown. He added that there was “a high possibility” explosives destroyed the plane. Shim stated, “The plane had a normal takeoff, and … there is little possibility that it could crash because of mechanical malfunctions.” He added that witnesses heard two explosions on the ground. Moon Chang-boo, the ROK consul in Shanghai, said that all three members of the flight crew and four others on the ground were killed. Moon said that 25 people were injured, some seriously. An anonymous doctor with Minhang Central Hospital said that 37 people were critically injured. The ROK transport ministry dispatched two investigators to Shanghai, and Korean Air said it had also sent a team.

4. US Policy toward Taiwan

The Associated Press (Harry Dunphy, “GOP LAWMAKERS URGE TAIWAN TIES,” Washington, 04/14/99), Reuters (“HELMS SAYS ‘OVER MY DEAD BODY’ TO TAIWAN SALES CUT,” Washington, 04/14/99) and the Washington Times (Gus Constantine, “HELMS PLEDGES TO CONTINUE SALE OF ARMS TO TAIWAN,” 04/15/99, 16) reported that US Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC), chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said Wednesday that the US should respond to the PRC’s “threatening military buildup” by enhancing defense cooperation with Taiwan. Helms, speaking at a conference marking the 20th anniversary of the Taiwan Relations Act, added that US military sales to Taiwan would be cut only “over my dead body.” Helms and Senator Robert Torricelli, D-NJ, have proposed legislation that would prohibit any “politically motivated” reduction in US arms sales to Taiwan and authorize sales of missile defense systems, satellite early warning data, diesel submarines, and advanced air-to-air missiles. Parris Chang, a member of Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan, parliament, said that Taiwan experiences “constant delays, denials and reductions” in US military sales. Chen Chien-jen, Taiwan’s top government spokesman, praised the Taiwan Relations Act, but added that it “cannot fully substitute for formal diplomatic relations.” He also said that the act’s “deliberate use of ambiguity” leaves unclear the US response if the PRC resorts to military force. At a House hearing Wednesday on the Taiwan Relations Act, Representative Doug Bereuter, R-Neb., the chairman of the House International Relations subcommittee on Asia, said that the PRC’s missile deployment opposite Taiwan was a “blatant attempt at intimidation.” Kurt Campbell, deputy assistant secretary of defense, said that the US wants the PRC and Taiwan to resolve their differences peacefully. Susan Shirk, deputy assistant secretary of state, said that it was too early to discuss Taiwan’s inclusion in a regional missile defense system as it “is still in development and is therefore not going to be provided to anyone in the near future.” She added, “Neither the PRC nor Taiwan would be served by over-emphasis on military hardware while neglecting the art of statesmanship.” House International Relations Committee Chairman Ben Gilman, R-NY, said he was concerned “about the administration’s reluctance, especially the State Department and the NSC (National Security Council), to include the Congress in the process of determining the nature and quantity of defensive arms and services to Taiwan.” [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for April 15.]

The Los Angeles Times (Caitlin Liu, “L.A.’S TAIWANESE PRAY FOR PEACE IN HOMELAND RALLY,” 04/11/99) reported that Taiwanese-Americans in southern California held rallies last weekend to observe the 20th anniversary of the Taiwan Relations Act. Simon J. Lin, president of the Southern California Taiwan Center, stated, “Taiwanese human rights must be respected and protected. The U.S. government should continue to support the people on Taiwan.” Lin added, “We must go out and fight to protect Taiwan’s democracy.” On Saturday, Peng Ming-min, a former presidential candidate in Taiwan and former chairman of the department of political science at the National Taiwan University, stated, “The Taiwan Relations Act has become the key component of Taiwan-US relations and a major part of US-China relations.” Peng called self-determination by the people on Taiwan a “fundamental human right” that Taiwanese who now live elsewhere should fight to maintain.

5. Taiwanese Entrance to WTO

The Wall Street Journal (Yu Wong, “SINO-U.S. TALKS DELAY TAIWAN’S WTO BID, FRUSTRATING ISLAND’S OFFICIALS, BUSINESSES,” Taipei, 04/15/99) reported that Taiwan officials and foreign businesspeople expressed frustration that the failure of the US and the PRC to agree on the PRC’s entrance to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is holding up Taiwan’s WTO entry. Duncan Woolridge, chief economist at Merrill Lynch (Asia-Pacific) Ltd., stated, “Whether Taiwan gets into the WTO is purely a function of your optimism over China’s negotiations with the US.” An unnamed US banker in Taipei stated, “It’s all about political management, and Taiwan has no control.” An unnamed Taiwan Foreign Ministry official stated, “It’s the only international body we can join without angering the mainland.” He added, “WTO will give us an identity in an international forum.” An unnamed Taiwanese trade official said that if the US and the PRC fail to reach an agreement, “We will demand that Taiwan’s WTO status be considered on a separate basis from the mainland, from a purely economic angle.”

5. PRC Premier’s US Visit

The New York Times (Joseph Kahn, “CHINA LEADER ENDS U.S. VISIT WITH TRADE TALK AT M.I.T.,” Cambridge, 04/15/99) reported that PRC Prime Minister Zhu Rongji completed his trip to the US with a speech at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on Wednesday. Zhu stated, “It is important that you see the strategic nature of our relationship. We are not your enemy. We are your trustworthy friend.” Two organizers of the 1989 demonstrations in Tiananmen Square, Wang Dan and Chai Ling, led a group protesting the PRC’s human rights record outside of Zhu’s talks. A brief scuffle broke out between pro- and anti-PRC demonstrators.

6. Alleged PRC Arms Sales

The Washington Times (Bill Gertz, “CHINA STILL SHIPPING ARMS DESPITE PLEDGES,” 04/15/99, 1) reported that a US Defense Department intelligence report said that the PRC is continuing secret transfers of missile and weapons technology to the Middle East and South Asia. A US official familiar with the report stated, “the Chinese are proliferating on a consistent basis without technically breaking agreements with the United States.” An unnamed State Department official said that a separate intelligence report found that the PRC has provided the DPRK with special steel used in building missile frames. Another US official said that the US presented general details about the steel transfer to the PRC government in November in a diplomatic protest, but PRC officials said that their investigation had failed to locate the transfer. US intelligence officials declined PRC requests for more information about the transaction, citing sensitive intelligence. Gary Milhollin, director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, argued, “The administration has been saying that China has reformed, and we all want to believe that, but the evidence is to contrary.” [Ed. note: This article was one of the top stories in the US Department of Defense’s Early Bird news service for April 15.]

7. Nuclear Waste Shipment to Japan

The Associated Press (“UK SHIP CARRYING NUCLEAR WASTE FROM FRANCE ARRIVES IN JAPAN,” Tokyo, 04/15/99) reported that more than 100 anti-nuclear activists protested at a northern Japanese port where a ship carrying a shipment of nuclear waste docked and unloaded its cargo on Thursday. Shigehiro Ito of Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd said that 20 tons of treated radioactive waste was unloaded and transferred safely to a storage facility in the village of Rokkasho. Thursday’s was the fourth such shipment of high-level Japanese waste reprocessed in France and sent back to Japan since 1995.

8. Japanese Elections

Reuters (“OBUCHI MAY CALL SNAP POLL IN JAPAN BY YEAR-END,” Tokyo, 04/14/99) reported that Yuji Tsushima of Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) said Wednesday that Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi may call a general election by the end of this year if the economy recovers. Tsushima said that Obuchi was certain to be reelected head of the LDP in September and retain the premiership, despite the defeat of the LDP candidate in Sunday’s race for the governorship of Tokyo.

9. US Missile Defense

Reuters (Allan Dowd, “CANADA, U.S. OFFICIALS DISCUSSING MISSILE SHIELD,” Vancouver, 04/13/99) reported that Lieutenant-General George MacDonald, the ranking Canadian official at the North America Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), said on Tuesday that Canada and the US will hold meetings in the next few weeks about the possible role for Canada in a proposed missile defense system. MacDonald said that Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy had a “very successful” visit last month to NORAD to discuss US-Canadian military cooperation. MacDonald added that Canada could participate indirectly in the new anti-missile system by assuming some duties with NORAD that are now handled by US forces. He said, however, that Canada would not participate in testing the system’s technology beginning in July.

The Associated Press (“RUSSIA, CHINA WARN US OF ARMS RACE,” Moscow, 04/14/99) reported that Russian and PRC military officials and diplomats meeting in Moscow issued a statement on Wednesday warning that US development of a missile defense system would start a new arms race. The statement said, “The fulfillment of these plans would violate the main obligation under the ABM treaty.” It added that Russia and the PRC “believe that undermining or violating the ABM treaty would lead to a whole range of negative consequences: New factors would appear that would be capable of destabilizing the international situation … and create conditions for the resumption of the arms race.”

10. Pakistan Missile Tests

Reuters (Raja Asghar, “PAKISTAN FIRES SECOND MISSILE, WANTS CONTROL,” Islamabad, 04/15/99), the Associated Press (Kathy Gannon, “PAKISTANI MISSILE TESTS TRIGGER ARMS-RACE FEARS,” Islamabad, 04/15/99, A23), and the New York Times (Celia W. Dugger, “PAKISTAN TESTS NEW MISSILES, MATCHING INDIA IN THE ARMS RACE,” New Delhi, 04/15/99) reported that Pakistan on Thursday test-fired the short-range surface-to-surface Shaheen missile. The Pakistani government said the test-flight “concludes for now the series of flight tests involving solid and liquid fuel rocket motor technologies which started yesterday.” A government statement said that the Shaheen, with a range of 600 km (375 miles), could be tipped with any type of warhead. Foreign Ministry spokesman Tariq Altaf said that Pakistan and India “must both enter into [a] restraint regime which will define the limits of such weapons.” Altaf added, “We believe that after the Agni-II test by India, Pakistan’s proposal for a strategic restraint regime has acquired a greater validity. This proposal should now be looked upon even more seriously and more urgently.”

Reuters (Andrew Hill, “ANALYSIS-INDO-PAK TESTS HIGHLIGHT S. ASIA TENSIONS,” Islamabad, 04/14/99) reported that analysts said that the missile tests by India and Pakistan demonstrate that there has been no improvement in the two countries’ arms race. One anonymous European Union ambassador stated, “This time I have to say that the responsibility lies squarely on the shoulders of India. But it’s terribly sad. I can see no end to this arms race, only more of the same.” However, South Asian expert Shirin Mazari stated, “In fact [the Pakistan missile test] stabilizes the arms race. If there’s an equitable equation between both sides, it is good for the stability of the region. But if one side was too far ahead than there would have been an arms race.” Savita Pande, a nuclear expert at the Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis in New Delhi, argued, “The (Pakistan) test was very much on expected lines. They have a right to do this. There is no counter to missiles other than missiles, no counter to nuclear weapons other than nuclear weapons.” Ayaz Naseem, assistant professor at the Quaid-e-Azam University’s department of Defense and Strategic Studies in Islamabad, argued, “I personally think there was no need for the missile tests by India and Pakistan … both countries have detonated nuclear devices to establish a detente. It is not right to test when you have hunger, poverty and pressing development needs. Now I think it is time to stop.”

11. Indian Reaction to Pakistan Missile Test

Reuters (Narayanan Madhavan, “FOCUS-INDIA SHRUGS OFF PAKISTAN MISSILE TEST,” New Delhi, 04/14/99) reported that Indian Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh said Wednesday that Pakistan’s missile test would not create a regional arms race. Singh stated, “There is no arms race, there is no danger.” Asked if the missile tests would affect India-Pakistan peace talks, he replied, “No.” He added, “We believe that a Pakistan which is at peace with itself … is good for the region.” Jasjit Singh, director of the government-backed Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), stated, “India needs intermediate missiles not because of Pakistan.” He added, “I don’t think we should deny Pakistan its right to self-defense.” He also argued, “if this makes Pakistan more self-confident, then chances of peace increase.”

12. US Response to South Asian Missile Tests

White House Press Secretary Joe Lockhart (“WHITE HOUSE REPORT, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 14, 1999,” 04/14/99) said that the US is disappointed with the missile tests by India and Pakistan. Lockhart stated, “Although these may not violate any existing arms control treaty, they certainly do nothing to enhance the environment in which cooperation between the countries is enhanced.”

13. PRC Reaction to Pakistan Missile Tests

The Associated Press (“CHINA URGES INDIA, PAKISTAN TO AVOID ARMS RACE,” Beijing, 04/15/99) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Sun Yuxi on Thursday called on India and Pakistan to take steps to prevent an arms race. Sun said that both sides should “seek concrete avenues to avoid the acceleration of an arms race in South Asia so that peace and stability can prevail.”

14. Japanese Reaction to Pakistan Missile Tests

Reuters (“JAPAN REGRETS PAKISTAN TEST, FEARS ARMS RACE,” Islamabad, 04/14/99) and Dow Jones Newswires (“JAPAN PROTESTS PAKISTAN’S 2ND MISSILE TEST – KYODO,” Tokyo, 04/15/99) reported that a Japanese Foreign Ministry statement said on Wednesday that Japan regretted Pakistan’s missile test. The statement added, “The missile testing could be detrimental to peace and stability of the region.” It stated, “Japan is apprehensive that the successive missile testing by India and Pakistan would go against the trend of their dialogue process as envisioned under the Lahore Declaration of this February, thus again heightening the tensions between them.” It concluded, “Japan earnestly hopes that the test-firing would not intensify nuclear arms and missile development race in the region. Japan renews its strong hope that both India and Pakistan would refrain from further missile testing and make constructive efforts to avoid aggravating the regional tension.” An anonymous foreign ministry official said that Japan “remains concerned over reports that Pakistan’s medium-range Ghauri missiles are the same type as North Korea’s Rodong missiles.”

II. Republic of Korea

1. DPRK Airspace Opening

Korea Times (“NK EARNS $1.5 MILLION BY OPENING UP ITS AIRSPACE TO FLIGHTS,” Seoul, 04/15/99) reported that the DPRK has earned US$1.5 million since opening its airspace to international airlines a year ago, according to the ROK Ministry of Construction and Transportation on Wednesday. A total of 2,154 aircraft used the DPRK airspace between April 23 last year and the end of March this year. This means a monthly average of 213 flights and a daily average of 7.5 flights. The DPRK opened its flight information region (FIR) for the first time in April last year, charging US$761 for a large plane and US$250 for a smaller one passing through its airspace. In April last year, when the DPRK airspace was opened, flights over their FIR numbered 27, but the figure rose to 283 last month. The DPRK opened a single air route at first, but it opened another route last September. Russian aircraft used the DPRK airspace the most, accounting for 46.8 percent of all flights. The ROK came in second with 15.2 percent, followed by the US (11.1 percent), Singapore (10.2 percent), France (6.6 percent), the PRC (4 percent), Canada (4 percent) and Hong Kong (2.1 percent).

2. ROK Investment in DPRK

Korea Herald (“NORTH KOREA-BORN ENTREPRENEURS FORM AID GROUP,” Seoul, 04/15/99) reported that a group of nine chaebol leaders born in the DPRK on Wednesday formed a “Let’s Invest in the North” association. The association, headed by Kohap Group Chairman Chang Chi-hyeok, will spearhead efforts to reconstruct the DPRK economy and to transfer the ROK’s idle industrial facilities to DPRK, an association spokesman said. The DPRK-born businessmen will also push to expand investments across the border, they added. Other members included Cho Chang-sok, chairman of Samyoung Textile, Park Seung-bok, chairman of Sampyo Foods and Ham Tae-ho, chairman of Ottogi Corp.

3. ROK Defector to DPRK

Korea Herald (“SOUTH KOREAN DEFECTS TO NORTH THROUGH BEIJING,” Seoul, 04/15/99) reported that an ROK student who sought to defect to DPRK while staying in the DPRK Embassy in Nepal in January arrived in Pyongyang via Beijing on Tuesday. An official of the ROK Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade said that Kim Tae-won, 29, a senior of Konkuk University in Seoul who attended a national reunification festival held in Pyongyang in August last year as a representative of Hanchongnyon, an organization of college student activists in ROK, flew to Pyongyang from Beijing on Tuesday. On Sunday, he held a press conference at the DPRK embassy in Nepal to confirm his plan, which he first announced in January, to seek political asylum in the DPRK. On March 31, the Nepalese government notified the DPRK embassy of its plan to deport Kim within a week, the official said.

4. ROK Army Official’s Death

Chosun Ilbo (“LIEUTENANT KIM’S DEATH RULED SUICIDE,” Seoul, 04/14/99) reported that the 2nd special investigation team of the Minister of National Defense (MND) concluded Wednesday that Lieutenant Kim Hoon’s death at a guard post near the Joint Security Area last February was a suicide. The special team reviewed 122 questionable points suggested by his family and the press, but from a variety of evidence and medical analysis drew the conclusion that Kim had committed suicide and had not been murdered. A Catholic human rights committee and a fact-finding mission from the National Assembly advocated a civil re-investigation, saying that the special investigation team reached the suicide conclusion first and used the evidence to confirm it.

III. Japan

1. Revelation of 1994 Contingency Plan

The Asahi Shimbun (“1994 CONTINGENCY PLAN WAS REVEALED: JAPAN’S PLANNED SUPPORT FOR US-ROK ALLIANCE DURING 1993-94 NUCLEAR CRISIS ON KOREAN PENINSULA,” 04/15/99) reported that some of those who were involved in dealing with the DPRK nuclear crisis from 1993 to 1994 revealed to the Asahi Shimbun the Japanese government’s contingency plan at that time. According to the paper’s findings, the US strongly requested that Japan provide acquisition and services, logistic support, maritime blockade, and non-combatant evacuation operations. The Japanese government immediately undertook two simulation games, based on the so-called US-ROK Joint Operation 5027, in which Japan examined what support Japan can provide and how to do so. The simulation games were never put into practice because former US President Jimmy Carter’s visit to the DPRK calmed down the situation in the DPRK. However, the content of and methods used in the simulation games were utilized for the review of the Guidelines for Japan-US Defense Cooperation in 1996. The article added that in the simulation games, the government worked out both Japan-US-ROK coordination and Japan’s own action, and that the latter was reflected in Japan’s dealing with the DPRK suspected ships that infiltrated into Japanese territorial waters in March.

2. Tokyo Governor’s Election

The Daily Yomiuri (“ISHIHARA’S HAWKISH IMAGE CONCERNS LDP MEMBERS,” 04/13/99) carried a Yomiuri Shimbun article reporting that the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) expressed concern that the hawkish image of Shintaro Ishihara, newly elected Tokyo Governor and former Transport Minister, “may disturb the party and the government.” In response to Ishihara’s victory of the recent Tokyo gubernatorial election, Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi said, “I would like him to enthusiastically meet the Tokyo residents’ trust in him and ensure that Tokyo continues to develop as one of the world’s largest cities, as he was chosen to lead the 11 million residents.” Obuchi also added, “I will cooperate with him from that perspective.” There is concern among those close to Obuchi, however, that Ishihara, who has a hawkish image, will intervene in national policies and stir up complicated problems. Although Yukio Aoshima, Ishihara’s predecessor, had almost no connections with the central policies, Ishihara, on the other hand, has been involved with central politics as a Cabinet member and as a leading member of the LDP. Some LDP members are afraid that he may confront the government, unlike Aoshima. At a post-victory news conference, Ishihara referred to the return of the US Yokota Air Base, saying, “I am ready to start negotiating as early as tomorrow.” He also said that the LDP “is not doing what the public expects of it.” In response, a close Obuchi aide said, “It is not necessary to go that far, and he makes us feel nervous about the future.” As for the return of the Yokota Air Base, LDP Secretary General Yoshiro Mori at a news conference on April 12 said, “Ishihara has kept mentioning this issue since he was a Diet member, but I wonder if he will really follow it through as a governor.” The article added that the government is also concerned that Ishihara referred to the PRC as “Sina,” a nationalistic reference to the country, when he declared his intention to run for governor.

3. Japanese-Russian Relations

The Daily Yomiuri (“AGENCY CHIEF TO VISIT SAKHALIN,” 04/14/99) carried a Yomiuri Shimbun article reporting that the director general of the Management and Coordination Agency, Seiichi Ota, said on April 13 that he will visit Sakhalin, Russia, to have talks with the province’s governor, Igor Farkhutdinov, during the Golden Week holidays in early May. Ota heads the campaign for the return of the Russian-held northern territories off eastern Hokkaido. Ota said he will also meet former residents of the four northern islands in Nemuro, Hokkaido, before and after the visit.

4. Japan’s Defense Policy

The Yomiuri Shimbun (“DEFENSE AGENCY CONSIDERS BUYING TWO MORE HIGH-SPEED MISSILE BOATS,” 04/10/99) reported that the Japanese Defense Agency (JDA) is considering spending part of its fiscal 2000 budget on two additional small high-speed patrol boats capable of launching missiles. The move is being considered in light of the incursion of two suspected DPRK spy ships into Japanese waters late last month. JDA is also considering equipping destroyers with machine guns to prepare for possible maritime policing action. The government earlier decided to earmark a total of 19 billion yen in fiscal 1999 for the procurement of two high-speed boats with missile launch capability, which will be deployed in late fiscal 2001. According to some officials, JDA is considering eventually increasing the number of such boats to 10, and deploying them mainly at coastal bases in the Sea of Japan, including Maizuru Base in northern Kyoto Prefecture. The boats can accommodate 15 to 20 crewmembers and carry ship-to-ship missiles and a 76mm gun.

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Timothy L. Savage:
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Wade L. Huntley:
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Lee Dong-young:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

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Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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