NAPSNet Daily Report 01 October, 2001

Recommended Citation

"NAPSNet Daily Report 01 October, 2001", NAPSNet Daily Report, October 01, 2001, https://nautilus.org/napsnet/napsnet-daily-report/napsnet-daily-report-01-october-2001/

 
CONTENTS

I. United States

1. DPRK Defectors
2. Remains of US Soldiers from Korean War
3. ROK Policy toward the DPRK
4. ROK Counter-Terrorism
5. PRC Counter-Terrorism
6. PRC Detention of US Citizen
7. PRC National Day
8. Taiwan Military Purchases
9. Japanese Support for US Retaliation
10. US Naval Deployments
11. Internment of Japanese-Americans in WWII
II. Japan 1. Japanese logistical support for US
2. Japanese Role in Humanitarian Aid
3. Japanese Naval Deployments
4. US Naval Movements from Japan
5. Japanese Intelligence Sharing with US
6. Japanese role in Middle East and Afghanistan
7. Pakistani View of Japanese Role
8. Asian Views of Japanese Role
9. Taiwanese View of Japanese Role
10. Japanese Public Opinion on Retaliation
11. Other Japanese Opinions
12. George W. Bush’s Japan Visit
13. Japanese Chemical Weapons in PRC
14. Salvage of Ehime Maru

I. United States

1. DPRK Defectors

The Associated Press (Jae-Suk Yoo, “A NORTH KOREAN’S IMPROBABLE ODYSSEY TO FREEDOM,” Seoul, 09/30/01) reported that Kim Hyong-deok in July became the first DPRK defector to work in the ROK National Assembly, working as secretary to a governing party legislator. Kim stated, “In the North, the state would have probably made me a coal miner or a farmer.” He said that he had no hope of career advancement in the DPRK because his late grandfather briefly served in the ROK army during the Korean War. His boss, Representative Kim Seong-ho of the Millennium Democratic Party, said that Kim Hyong-deok’s “experience of both South and North Korean societies has been a big help in approaching inter- Korean issues more objectively and practically.” Kim fled the DPRK eight years ago and wandered around the PRC, Vietnam and Hong Kong before reaching the ROK in 1994. In his 1997 autobiography, “I Want to Live With My Father,” Kim said reported atrocities he witnessed in the DPRK, including public executions.

2. Remains of US Soldiers from Korean War

Reuters (“REMAINS BELIEVED TO BE U.S. SOLDIERS TO LEAVE NORTH KOREA,” Washington, 10/01/01) reported that the US Defense Department said Monday that remains believed to be those of 17 US soldiers missing in action from the Korean War would be flown to Yokota Air Base in Japan from the DPRK on Tuesday. The remains, which will be transported to Hawaii for forensic identification, include 14 recovered by a joint US- DPRK search team operating near the Chosin Reservoir. A second joint search team recently recovered three sets of remains in Unsan and Kujang Counties and along the Chong Chon River. Ten separate search operations are being conducted this year.

3. ROK Policy toward the DPRK

The Associated Press (J.H. Yun, “S.KOREA PREPARING FOR TERROR THREATS,” Kyeryondae, 09/28/01) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said Friday that his government will continue its “sunshine” policy toward the DPRK. He stated, “Let us keep in mind that reconciliation and cooperation based on strong national security is the path that will safeguard the life and property of the people and guarantee national development.” He added that inter-Korean tension would further ease if a cross-border railway is built as scheduled, but he said that unification is not the immediate goal. He argued, “We can unify the country when we come to believe that the South and North can peacefully coexist, peacefully interact and peacefully live together – maybe 10 or 20 years from now.”

4. ROK Counter-Terrorism

The Associated Press (J.H. Yun, “S.KOREA PREPARING FOR TERROR THREATS,” Kyeryondae, 09/28/01) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said Friday at a ceremony marking the 53rd anniversary of the founding of the ROK military that terrorism presents a new type of threat to the ROK. He stated, “There is no longer any distinction between the front and the rear, between day and night. In many cases, the identity of the enemy is not certain.” Kim pledged the ROK’s full support for the US war on terrorism, calling on the ROK military to work closely with the US military to maintain the current high level of alert. He also urged tighter anti-terrorist precautions, especially for the World Cup soccer finals and Asian Games next year. He stated, “We must ensure that Koreans and people from around the world can participate in these events without anxiety.”

5. PRC Counter-Terrorism

The New York Times carried an analytical article (Erik Eckholm, “CHINA’S SUPPORT FOR U.S. ON TERROR IS A DRAMATIC ABOUT-FACE,” Beijing, 09/30/01) which said that the PRC leadership sees an opportunity in the move against terrorism to improve overall relations with the US and other Western countries. Lu Gang, professor of Russian studies at East China Normal University in Shanghai, argued, “The Chinese government understands that if the United States can be attacked like this, so can China. Beijing is hosting the 2008 Olympics, and if the menace of international terrorism isn’t extinguished by then, China could face a direct and serious threat.” He added, “I’m hopeful that this event will help the United States and China find more common ground and lead to an improvement in relations. Not just an improvement, but a major improvement.” Chas. W. Freeman, a defense consultant and former diplomat in Washington, argued, “For China, this is a chance for a fresh start with the Bush administration.” He added, “If the United States doesn’t act too unilaterally in this antiterror campaign – if China and Russia can feel that they are included – then they won’t have so much incentive to join together in opposition to American hegemony.” A European diplomat in Beijing said that so far the US and the PRC have both “sent the right signals.” Diplomats said that for the US is to get PRC support, it will need to seek a strong UN role in the war against terrorism.

The International Herald Tribune (Susan V. Lawrence, “THE OTHER SUPERPOWER MAY MAKE DEMANDS, BUT WON’T INTERFERE,” 09/27/01) reported that Yan Xuetong, the director of Tsinghua University’s Institute of International Studies, said that the PRC’s support of US actions against terrorism are not surprising. Yan stated, “We don’t want to stand alone.” Yan explained that the PRC can accept US action because it is retaliation, not interference, and because the PRC shares concerns about terrorism. Wang Yizhou of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that as a price for winning cooperation from the PRC and Russia, the US may have to tone down its “overbearing” attitude, soften the rhetoric on national missile defense, and pull back on NATO’s eastern expansion. He also predicted that the US would “change its arrogant attitude toward the United Nations and its Security Council.”

6. PRC Detention of US Citizen

The Washington Post (Philip P. Pan, “CHINA FREES U.S. WRITER HELD ON SPY CHARGES,” Beijing, 09/29/01, A24) reported that the PRC released Wu Jianmin, a Chinese-born US citizen who wrote often about PRC politics. The official New China News Agency said that Wu was expelled by authorities in Guangdong after being held for engaging in “espionage activities on the Chinese mainland many times, seriously jeopardizing the national security of China.” It added that Wu received a “light punishment” because he “confessed to his crimes and disclosed his accomplices’ criminal activities.”

7. PRC National Day

The Associated Press (“CHINA CELEBRATES PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC,” Beijing, 10/01/01) reported that the PRC on Monday celebrated National Day, the anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic. President Jiang Zemin led top leaders in an appearance late Sunday night atop Tiananmen gate in Beijing. Premier Zhu Rongji said that terrorism was a “serious global scourge” and vowed that the government would make “staunch and unremitting efforts” together with other countries to ensure peace. State television reported that Jiang made a similar pledge in a phone conversation with Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf, but stressed that any action against those behind the attacks on the US must be based on sufficient evidence, have a specific target and adhere to principles outlined by the UN.

8. Taiwan Military Purchases

Agence France-Presse (“MILITARY BUILD-UP,” 10/02/01) reported that Taiwan’s China Times said Monday that the Taiwan Defense Ministry approved the purchase of four Kidd-class destroyers worth NT$25 billion last week. The purchase is part of an arms package approved by US President George W. Bush in April, which also included eight diesel- powered submarines and 12 P-3C “sub-hunting” patrol aircraft.

9. Japanese Support for US Retaliation

The Associated Press (“JAPAN’S PRIME MINISTER DRAWS FIRE,” Tokyo, 10/01/01) reported that Japanese opposition leaders warned Monday that Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s plans to authorize support for a US- led campaign against terrorism could violate the constitution. Yukio Hatoyama, leader of the main opposition Democratic Party, stated, “The prime minister is in such a rush to play up the Japan-U.S. alliance that it seems he’s willing to do anything the United States wants. People in this country are worried.” Hatoyama said that the constitutional basis for Koizumi’s plans was vague and that it was “common sense” not to allow the nation’s military to participate in the global fight against terrorism until its objectives were clear. He added, however, that his party was prepared to discuss new legislation within the bounds of the constitution if the US made clear its strategy and evidence against the suspected terrorists.

10. US Naval Deployments

The Associated Press (Robert Burns, “NAVY DISPATCHING FOURTH US CARRIER,” Washington, 10/01/01) reported that US defense officials said that the USS Kitty Hawk was dispatched from its homeport in Japan Monday toward the Arabian Sea without its full fleet of planes. The officials said that the Kitty Hawk would be available for use by US special operations forces or by Navy aircraft other than its own. One anonymous defense official said that the Kitty Hawk left Yokosuka Naval Base with a “representative mix” of strike and support planes on board, including combat aircraft like the F-18 Hornet and F-14 Tomcat.

11. Internment of Japanese-Americans in WWII

The Associated Press (Michelle Locke, “JAPANESE-AMERICANS RECALL INTERNMENT,” San Francisco, 09/30/01) reported that Japanese-Americans who were placed in internment camps during World War II see similarities to the current situation for Arab-Americans. Kiku Funabiki pointed out that Sikhs wearing buttons saying, “I am an American” recalled badges worn in wartime Chinatown that said, “I am a Chinese-American.” She stated, “The deja vu is just chilling.” Jerry Kang, a law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, said that while similar mass internments are not likely, curtailed rights for immigrants are. US universities have reportedly already turned over files on students suspected of supporting terrorism to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

II. Japan

1. Japanese logistical support for US

The Japan Times (Takuya Asakura, “BACKING OF U.S. REVIVES DEBATE ON SDF,” Tokyo, 09/28/01) reported that certain quarters in the Japanese Defense Agency and the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) criticized Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s seven-point plan to support US retaliation for the September 11 attacks. A senior Defense Agency official said that Koizumi would have to cut through the bureaucracy and virtually scrap past agreements that have formed the foundation for SDF activities under the Constitution. The article said that the government is probably motivated by its experience during the Persian Gulf War, when Japan was unable to send the SDF and its financial contributions were called “too little and too late.” Defense Agency officials said that aiding refugees and providing medical aid in areas such as Pakistan will involve danger, adding that it might be impossible to draw a distinct line between the front and the rear in other countries. Defense Agency officials see UN guidelines as insufficient for properly protecting SDF personnel in some situations. A senior officer of the Ground SDF said that he was angered by the discussions being carried out by the government and politicians, saying they are superficial and fail to address fundamental problems with the nation’ security policy. He said that he is ready to sacrifice himself for the country but does not want to die or see his colleagues die because of insufficient laws.

2. Japanese Role in Humanitarian Aid

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“REFUGEE AID EYED FOR SDF SUPPORT LAW,” Tokyo, 09/27/01) reported that Japan’s ruling coalition wants a planned law on Japanese support for US forces to allow the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) aid the thousands of Afghan refugees created by the expected US retaliation. Liberal Democratic Party Secretary-General Taku Yamazaki said that the refugee aid provision would be ” representative of participation suitable for Japan.” Urged by the Japanese Defense Agency, the parties are also moving to ease the current restrictions on the use of weapons by SDF members, who may face trouble when providing aid to refugees, coalition sources said.

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“SDF AIRLIFT AIMED AT AIDING REFUGEES,” Tokyo, 09/29-30/01) reported that the Japanese government decided on Friday to airlift emergency relief to Afghan refugees fleeing to Pakistan ahead of anticipated US retaliatory strikes. Four or five C-130 Hercules transport aircraft belonging to the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) will carry tents, blankets and other goods to refugee camps along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, officials said. The assistance is being provided under a provision for “international humanitarian aid activities” in the Peace-Keeping Operations (PKO) law, which regulates the role of SDF personnel in UN peacekeeping operations. The government said it was applying the PKO law while the area around Pakistan is not in a state of war. Asked about the airlift Friday, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda would not specify when the planes would leave.

Kyodo (“SDF’S ADVANCE TEAM ARRIVES IN PAKISTAN,” Islamabad, 10/01/01) reported that a Japanese government advance team arrived in Islamabad on Sunday to prepare for the dispatch of Air Self-Defense Forces (ASDF) aircraft to transport relief supplies to refugees entering the country from neighboring Afghanistan. The team consists of a dozen officials from the Japanese Defense Agency, the ASDF, the Foreign Ministry and the International Peace Cooperation Headquarters, which deals with international peacekeeping operations. The team will inspect airports to be used by ASDF C-130 transport airplanes that are to fly to Pakistan, runways and fueling and radio facilities, as well as gathering intelligence on security conditions. The mission is expected to last from a week to 10 days. Japan will then dispatch ASDF planes to Pakistan early next month, Japanese official said.

3. Japanese Naval Deployments

The Japan Times (“DISPATCH OF AEGIS SHIP SUSPENDED,” Tokyo, 09/29/01) reported that the Japanese government will not dispatch an Aegis destroyer to the Indian Ocean to back the anticipated military retaliation for the September 11 attack. The government had been considering sending the 7,250-ton Kongo on an intelligence-gathering mission, but caution from within the Liberal Democratic Party has forced the plan to be put on hold, the sources said. A future dispatch of the destroyer has not been ruled out, but the government is now considering putting another escort ship in its place. During the Liberal Democratic Party’s (LDP) General Council meeting, LDP Secretary General Taku Yamazaki said, “It is an issue that should be tackled with a sense of balance. Whether or not to include the Aegis destroyer is an important political judgement, and I am negative toward it.” Former Secretary General Hiromu Nonaka also expressed concern, saying, “There is a dangerous feeling” about such a dispatch.

The Japan Times (“JAPAN, U.S. SIGNALS MIXED OVER SDF DEPLOYMENT,” Tokyo, 09/27/01) reported that Japan and US are split over the planned deployment of a destroyer and other vessels from the SDF to the Indian Ocean ahead of the US-led military strike. As part of the seven-point plan announced by Junichiro Koizumi last week, the MSDF was prepared to dispatch an Aegis destroyer and three other ships to Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean for intelligence gathering and surveillance duties. The sources said that US Navy welcomes the Japanese move, but has different expectations for the Japanese assistance. For example, the US want the MSDF to secure safe passage through the South China Sea and transport goods between Australia and Diego Garcia and other points. A Japanese source who was involved in the deployment of an MSDF mine-sweeping contingent after the Persian Gulf War said that the MSDF flotilla is apparently being deployed this time without full consultations between Japan and US.

4. US Naval Movements from Japan

Kyodo (“KITTY HAWK RETURNS TO YOKOSUKA,” Yokosuka, 10/01/01) reported that the US aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk returned on Sunday to its forward deployed port in Yokosuka, nine days after departing for an undisclosed destination. The US Navy in Japan said that the 81,123-ton carrier participated in operation after departing but declined to provide any details or discuss future actions. The Japan Coast Guard deployed 24 patrol ships, three helicopters and special units to help guard the aircraft carrier. The media speculated that the Kitty Hawk was heading to the Indian Ocean, but the Kitty Hawk’s web site says the aircraft carrier was conducting takeoff and landing drills in the Pacific off the Boso Peninsula. On the same day, the 42,000-ton Rappahannock, and the 8,422-ton guided-missile destroyer Curtis Wilbur also docked at the port, while the 19,940-ton Flint, which supplies ammunition, departed.

5. Japanese Intelligence Sharing with US

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“JAPAN SEEKS KEY ROLE IN FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM,” Tokyo, 09/29-30/01) reported that Japan plans to join the fight against terrorism by sharing intelligence with the US and cutting off funds to terrorist organizations. Japan has reportedly used its Middle East and Central Asia connections to get information that might help the US effort. Some of the sources were cultivated during negotiations in 1999 for the release of four Japanese held hostage by rebels in Kyrgyz Republic. A report by Japanese intelligence two days before the attacks on the US told of an assassination attempt on Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, and said he had been seriously wounded. Japanese analysts are pursuing the connection between the assassination of Massoud, which appears to have been a carefully orchestrated effort by Osama bin Laden’s network, and the attack on the US. One of the groups scrutinized closely in Tokyo was the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which is thought to have close ties to bin Laden. Japanese have also been building relations with leaders in Tajikistan. The US has also asked Japan to help enlist support of Islamic nations, including Iran, with which the US has no formal diplomatic relations. However, the article pointed out, there is no guarantee that the US will reciprocate by giving Japan military intelligence, and Japan;s importance in intelligence could diminish if the US bolsters intelligence sharing with Russia and China.

6. Japanese role in Middle East and Afghanistan

Financial Times (Bayan Rahman, “JAPAN DISPATCH ENVOYS TO IRAN AND SAUDI ARABIA, Tokyo, 09/28/01, 4) reported that Japan will send two senior envoys to Iran, Saudi Arabia and Egypt next week in an attempt to use its influence in the Middle East to help bring key countries into the US-led coalition against terrorism. Japan hopes to persuade Iran not to impede the coalition’s efforts in Afghanistan. It is likely to try to encourage Iran to coordinate its support for the Northern Alliance with the actions of the US against Osama Bin Laden, according to Japanese analysts. The article said that although Japan has attempted unsuccessfully over the past few years to mediate between the Taliban regime and the Northern Alliance, and plans for a peace conference in Tokyo between rival Afghan groups collapsed earlier this year, Japan’s knowledge of the two warring sides and its continuing contacts with them could put Japan in an important position as the channel of communications to Afghanistan.

7. Pakistani View of Japanese Role

The Japan Times (Yoichi Clark Shimatsu, “JAPAN COULD SERVE AS MEDIATOR IN CONFLICT,” Islamabad, 09/29/01) reported that security experts in Pakistan were encouraged by Japan’s push for a larger role in the Afghanistan crisis, but they cautioned that the specific issue of counter-terrorism should be integrated into wider regional security concerns. Sardar Mohammed Ibrahim Khan, a former Pakistani army general who now serves as president of Azad Jammu and Kashmir said, “as an exemplary member of the Asian community, Japan is the one countries respected by all parties for its sense of fairness and commitment to peace.” Conflicts in Kashmir, Afghanistan and Central Asia are better resolved or prevented by the East and South Asian regions working in tandem than with military intervention by former colonial powers, he added.

The Japan Times (“MSDF WON’T JOIN KITTY HAWK: NAKATANI,” Tokyo, 09/26/01) reported that Japanese Defense Agency chief Gen Nakatani on Tuesday denied that Marine Self-Defense Forces (MSDF) vessels would join the USS Kitty Hawk battle group in the Indian Ocean for expected US-led military retaliation. Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi last week announced that Japan would dispatch the MSDF ships to gather information as one of the seven measures the nation will take in response to the terrorism.

8. Asian Views of Japanese Role

Financial Times (Alexandra Harney, James Kynge and Mure Dickie, “NEIBOURS NOT FAZED BY JAPAN’S NEW MILITARISM”, 09/27/01, 13) reported that the latest Japanese proposal to extend the role of the Self-Defense Forces has hardly generated any criticism at all in the PRC, the ROK, and Taiwan, and even the DPRK toned down its rhetoric. Some observers said that Japan’s efforts to explain that the plan does not violate its constitution have placated its neighbors. Tomohisa Sakanaka, a board member at the Research Institute for International Peace and Security, stated, “Until now we have focused on US-Japan cooperation, but this time it is international cooperation.” Hisahiko Okazaki, former ambassador to Saudi Arabia and Thailand, said, “Asian countries always measured the world situation as to whether to comment positively or negatively (about an expansion of Japan’s military power). This time they thought it was not wise to comment negatively.”

9. Taiwanese View of Japanese Role

Financial Times (Alexandra Harney, James Kynge and Mure Dickie, “NEIBOURS NOT FAZED BY JAPAN’S NEW MILITARISM”, 09/27/01, 13) reported that many analysts in Taiwan consider Japan a natural ally in any confrontation with the PRC, and any easing of Japan’s restrictions on its military would raise hopes that Japan might in the future be ready to defend its interests in Taiwan. Philip Yang, an international relations expert at National Taiwan University, evaluated Japan’s expanded military role, saying that “From Taiwan’s point of view it’s a good development.”

10. Japanese Public Opinion on Retaliation

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“46% OPPOSE PLAN FOR SDF,” Tokyo, 10/01/01) reported that 62 percent of Japanese favor the nation’s support in the US battle against terrorism, while only 25 percent oppose Japan’s role, a recent Asahi Shimbun survey showed. The survey showed that 46 percent disagree with plans by the administration of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to enact legislation allowing the dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) to provide logistic support for the US military, but 42 percent said that the SDF should be sent overseas. Concerning the ruling coalition’s desire to ease restrictions on weapons use by SDF members on missions overseas, 39 percent back the idea, while 51 percent oppose it. Women are more opposed to the eased restrictions on the SDF weapons use.

Reuters (“70% OF POLLED FAVOR SDF SUPPORT OF U.S.,” Tokyo, 09/26/01) reported that seventy percent of Japanese adults surveyed favor mobilizing the SDF to provide logistical support for the expected US retaliation. Support of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s Cabinet has jumped to 79 percent, up to 10 points from a July survey, due to his stance backing US and his plans to forge ahead with economic reforms.

11. Other Japanese Opinions

The Japan Times (“DEBATE, DON’T DEPLOY SDF: EX-BUREAUCRATS,” Tokyo, 09/26/01) reported that two former top bureaucrats Nobuo Ishihara, a former deputy chief Cabinet secretary, who served during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, and Katsumi Takeoka, a former director of the secretariat at the Defense Agency, warned in recent interviews against a speedy expansion of Japan’s military role without meaningful debate. Ishihara said, “if the legislation is not enacted in time, Japan should clearly say what it cannot do,” noting that such a policy is needed before other countries build their hopes up. He also said that the limitations on Japan’s cooperation are unavoidable due to the Constitution. Takeoka said that Japan’s embarrassment during the Gulf War should not justify moves to amend the Constitution or change its interpretation to allow the country to engage in collective defense. He also said that Japan’s assistance toward any US retaliation would require UN authorization of the US acts, and that Japan can also urge the US to peacefully bring the culprits to justice at an international court, as the US stresses the rule of law.

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“THINK TWICE ABOUT USING SDF,” Tokyo, 09/27/01) reported that Masaharu Gotoda, a Liberal Democratic Party veteran, warned that Japan should not be too quick to dispatch the SDF to support US. He said, “The Japan-US Security Treaty is a military treaty. But the US military will be operating in areas surrounding Afghanistan at great distance from the Far East, the area stipulated in the treaty for coverage by the two nations. Japan must seriously debate how far the SDF can go without taking part in actual military operations and then stay within that limit. There have been recent debates on whether the SDF should provide security not only for US bases in Japan but also major facilities such as the Diet. Maintaining peace and order is a task for police. The police and the SDF have totally different roles.”

12. George W. Bush’s Japan Visit

Jiji Press (“BUSH VISIT TO JAPAN IS POSTPONED,” Washington, 09/27/01) reported that George W. Bush has postponed his visit to Japan, originally planned for October 16-18, the White House announced Tuesday. The White House statement did not cite any specific reason for postponement, but Bush is believed to have decided to remain in the country to head the ” war on terrorism” he declared after the September 11 attacks.

13. Japanese Chemical Weapons in PRC

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (Yoshitaka Sasaki, “JAPAN MUST CLEAN UP ITS CHEMICAL WEAPONS MESS,” Tokyo, 10/01/01) reported that Japan has yet to clean up the chemical weapons left by the former Imperial Japanese Army and Navy, although Japan signed the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). According to an analysis of declassified US Army documents and other contemporary US Occupation Forces documents conducted by Yoshiaki Yoshimi, professor of modern and contemporary Japanese history at Chuo University, the Imperial Japanese Army produced 1,646,326 units of chemical weapons from 1938 through 1943, and had a stockpile of 91,371 units in Japan at the end of war. The volume produced by the Imperial Japanese Navy was 70,600 units, 43,516 of which remained unused in Japan at the end of the war. The Army and the Navy are believed to have kept their stockpile at 18 sites around the nation, according to a Japanese government statement in April 1973. An estimated 700,000 are believed to have been dumped in China by the Guan- dong Army (Kantogun) and other units of the Imperial Japanese Army stationed in Manchuria. With the enforcement of the CWC in April 1997, the Japanese government agreed to dispose of all those weapons in the PRC within 10 years. Japan and the PRC reached a basic accord in July 1999, but talks are still progress on safety and cost issues, as well as environmental standards for the detoxification process.

14. Salvage of Ehime Maru

The Asahi Shimbun English edition (“EHIME MARU TO BE RAISED AROUND OCT. 12,” Honolulu, 10/01/01) reported that the US Navy will begin raising Ehime Maru as early as October 12, navy officials said Saturday. If all goes well, the Ehime Maru will be moved to an area off Honolulu international airport, the officials said. The search for those lost in collision will take place during or after the middle of October.

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Tokyo, Japan

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Tokyo, Japan

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Moscow, Russian Federation

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Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Dingli Shen: dlshen@fudan.ac.cn
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Clayton, Australia

 


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