- Electric Power Interconnection in NE Asia
- Scenarios for GAS and LNG Pipeline Infrastructure in EU
- Energy, Poverty, and Gender: China Case Study
- Energy Security and Climate Change
- High Energy Prices
- Asian Waste-Energy Consortium
- PRC and Regional NG Pipeline
- New Gas Reserves in ROK
- Solar PV Markets and Technology
1. Electric Power Interconnection in NE Asia
Hanyang University, Department of Economics (W. Yun, “A STRATEGIC APPROACH FOR ELECTRIC POWER IN INTERCONNECTION IN NORTH-EAST ASIA,” May 2004) released this paper for the APEC Study Centre Conference in May 2004. This study analyzes electric power interconnection in Northeast Asia, and suggests a strategic approach to implement this project. For this analysis, a scenario of electric power interconnection between the Far-East Russia-DPRK and the ROK is used. Based on the scenario, this paper presents several aspects to examine the feasibility of electric power interconnection among these countries including: electricity market structure; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and ROK; and political issues related to the DPRK. Two possible policy options to accomplish this proposed electric power interconnection project are introduced: the first is an inter-government project, and the second is a project financing scheme led primarily by the private sector. The author concludes that the latter appears to be more feasible.
2. Scenarios for GAS and LNG Pipeline Infrastructure in EU
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (P. Cayrade, “INVESTMENTS IN GAS PIPELINES AND LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE. WHAT IS THE IMPACT ON THE SECURITY OF SUPPLY? 2004) released this paper in connection with the INDES Project (Insuring against Disruption of Energy Supply). This paper addresses the question of the infrastructure investment required for gas pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) connections to meet growing gas demand in an enlarged EU over the next 20 years. Several issues are presented, bearing in mind the major objective of the security of supply for EU countries. First, recent projections of gas demand in an enlarged EU are presented along with the corresponding need for additional imports. A scenario is developed showing possible supply routes to meet the import gap, relying on increasingly remote routes. Finally, the question of major obstacles to the realization of the required investments in gas infrastructure over the next 20 years is addressed, opening debate on the subjects of future gas price, market liberalization and financing issues.
3. Energy, Poverty, and Gender: China Case Study
The World Bank (Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, U.K., “ENERGY, POVERTY, AND GENDER: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE AND CASE STUDIES IN RURAL CHINA,” April, 2003) released this report for a series on Energy, Poverty and Gender. The discussion of gender in the report takes as its starting point the empirical fact that women and children form, not only the majority of poor people in most communities in developing countries, but are universally the major users and suppliers of energy resources in marginalized households. It is argued that a focus on productive, often male-dominated energy services, has neglected the complementary nature of productive and reproductive activities in rural households and leads to interventions that are not only gender-biased, but also less effective in terms of poverty reduction. The review underlines the methodological difficulties of establishing rigorous quantitative relationship between energy inputs and poverty-gender outputs at the project level.
4. Energy Security and Climate Change
Energy Policy (H. Huntington, S. Brown, “ENERGY SECURITY AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION,” Volume 32, Issue 6, April 2004, pp. 715 – 718) released this paper arguing that industrialized countries may reduce their costs of meeting carbon constraints if they penalize fuels not only on the basis of their carbon intensity but also on the basis of their import-export status. Simulations of these policies show that participating industrialized countries can reduce their costs and hence increase their willingness to participate. However, they will impose higher costs on the world, because the most carbon-intensive fuels will not be taxed heavily.
Download the paper here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03014215
5. High Energy Prices
Asia Times (C. Bajpaee, “CHINA FUELS ENERGY COLD WAR,” March 2, 2005) reported that, while a number of supply-side and supply-chain factors have contributed to the volatility of crude oil prices, the most significant long-term factor contributing to rising oil prices is an increase in Asian demand, most notably from the PRC. The PRC’s unprecedented growth not only makes it a driver of a long-term increase in energy prices, but also the most vulnerable to rising oil prices. The PRC, which has been a net oil importer since 1993, is the world’s number two oil consumer after the US and has accounted for 40% of the world’s crude oil demand growth since 2000. The PRC’s proven oil reserves stand at 18 trillion barrels, and oil imports account for one-third of its crude oil consumption.
Agence France Presse (“HIGH OIL PRICES SPURRING ASIA TO SEEK ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOUCES,” March 3, 2005) reported that high global oil prices are spurring Asian governments into accelerating their search for alternative power sources and encouraging energy conservation. Governments are increasingly diversifying their “fuel mix” to cut dependence on imported oil by developing other power sources such as natural gas, geo-thermal, hydro, liquefied natural gas and renewable fuels, they said. Speaking at the annual Asia Power Conference here, the Southeast Asian energy officials said the region’s oil-importing countries were helpless to influence soaring global prices and must learn to live with the situation.
6. Asian Waste-Energy Consortium
Business Wire (“DIGITAL GAS JOINS ASIAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONSORTIUM TO ELIMINATE COAL AS A POWER PLANT FUEL,” March 3, 2005) reported that Digital Gas, Inc. announced that its subsidiary, Digital Energy & Farming Asia (DEFA) has signed an agreement with US-based Entropic Energy LLC to commercialize breakthrough waste-to-energy power generation technology in major cities across Asia. Entropic Energy is in final negotiations with a major Asian city to install a waste-to-energy plant that would process approximately 15,000 tons of municipal and other waste daily. The 300 MW plant would cost approximately five hundred million dollars with adjacent farming and other high profit businesses being arranged by DEFA. The Consortium will commercialize its technologies through joint ventures and Special Purpose Corporations with local groups. Entropic Energy’s patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed waste.
7. PRC and Regional NG Pipeline
South China Morning Post (E. Ng, “CHINA’S NEXT MOVE HINGES ON PIPELINE APPROVAL,” March 5, 2005) reported that Beijing will be forced to consider alternatives if Moscow does not approve the US$ 12 billion Siberia-PRC-Korea natural gas pipeline this year, the PRC’s would-be gas supplier TNK-BP warned yesterday. If the pipeline failed to materialize soon, the PRC government might choose to build more liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in coastal cities, the company said. “If the Russian government is unable to make a decision on the proposed pipeline this year, there will be a real possibility for PRC to go ahead with alternative LNG options,” TNK-BP commercial manager Neil Beveridge told the South China Morning Post.
8. New Gas Reserves in ROK
The Korea Herald (Kim Min-hee, “NEW GAS RESERVES FOUND IN EAST SEA,” March 4, 2005) reported that additional gas reserves near the Donghae-1 gas field off Korea’s east coast have been found, according to officials at Korea National Oil Corp. The state-run company estimates the new reserves hold about 800,000 metric tons of natural gas worth $280 million. The new reserves are located about 5 kilometers southwest of the Donghae-1 gas field, Korea’s first offshore gas field 58 kilometers off the industrial city of Ulsan.
9. Solar PV Markets and Technology
Clean Edge Alert (“TWO NEW REPORTS HIGHLIGHT ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR SOLAR PV IN THE U.S.”) announced the release of two reports that highlight the enormous potential for solar PV in the U.S. if government, industry, and investors cooperate to bring down installed solar photovoltaic (PV) pricing.
THE SOLAR HIGH-IMPACT NATIONAL ENERGY (SHINE Project) released by Clean Edge, Inc. and Co-op America’s Solar Catalyst Group, outlines a three-pronged federal program to regain American leadership in the high-growth global solar PV industry. If enacted, the plan would create up to 580,000 new American jobs and generate up to 9 percent of the country’s total electricity needs by 2025.
PV GRID CONNECTED MARKET POTENTIAL IN 2010 UNDER A COST BREAKTHROUGH SCENARIO, released by the Energy Foundation and Navigant Consulting Inc., describes the vast market potential for rooftop solar PV systems in the United States. The report concludes that rooftop space is not a constraining factor for solar development. Residential and commercial rooftop space in the U.S. could accommodate up to 710,000 MW of solar electric power (if all rooftops were fully utilized). For comparison, total electricity-generating capacity in the U.S. today is about 950,000 MW.
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